A Scientific Research Programme Planning Group of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines.
The Arctic Athabaskan Council (AAC) is an international treaty organization established to defend the rights and further the interests internationally of American and Canadian Athabaskan member First Nation governments in the eight-nation Arctic Council and other international fora. AAC is an authorized "Permanent Participant" in the Arctic Council. In addition, AAC seeks to foster a greater understanding of the shared heritage of Athabaskan peoples of Arctic North America.
The Australian Antarctic Division leads Australia's Antarctic program. The AAD carries out research, provides logistical support to scientists, and maintains all-year stations on Macquarie Island (54.30'S; 158.56'E) and at Casey (66.17'S; 77.58'E), Davis (68.35'S; 110.32'E) and Mawson (67.36'S; 62.52'E) on Antarctica. Also operates research vessel Aurora Australis. As a division of the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, their charter is to ensure Australia's Antarctic interests are advanced. Under its charter the AAD:
- administers the Australian Antarctic Territory and the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
- conducts research in high priority areas of Antarctic science
- coordinates and manages Australia's logistic program in Antarctica
- promotes Antarctic research in universities through grants and the provision of logistic support
- develops policy proposals and provides advice on Australia's Antarctic interests
- promotes Australia's Antarctic interests within the Antarctic Treaty System
- maintains a continuing presence in the region through permanent stations, the establishment of field bases and the provision of transport, communication and medical services
- acts as the primary source of Australian Antarctic information
The mandates of the Australian Antarctic Data Centre are as follows:
- Manage science data from Australia's Antarctic research (acquire, index, store, disseminate, link and 'mine')
- Map Australia's areas of interest in the Antarctic region
- Manage Australia's Antarctic state of the environment reporting
- Fabricate, install and manage Australia's Antarctic station tide gauges
- Provide advice and education and a range of other products
AAEPF - Association Amicale des Expéditions Polaires Françaises (Association of French Polar Expeditions)http://www.aaepf.org/ (French)
Le site WEB de l'AAEPF (Association Amicale des Expéditions Polaires Françaises) a un triple objectif:
- diffuser les informations concernant la vie de l'AAEPF et celle des EPF pour vous permettre d'y participer.
- donner des nouvelles sur les activités polaires et en particulier sur celles organisées par l'IPEV et les TAAF. Dans ce but, nous demanderons aux acteurs du terrain de s'exprimer et de nous faire parvenir des documents. Ils vous permettront de mieux apprécier les réalisations actuelles et les évolutions par rapport aux époques antérieures.
- faciliter l'accès à l'Histoire et aux petites histoires des expéditions polaires à travers la présentation de récits et de documents ainsi que par la constitution d'une bibliographie polaire reprenant entre autres les ouvrages disponibles à la boutique.
**website available in
Located in St. Petersburg, AARI is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica. The State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute belongs to the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. Organized in 1920, AARI is the oldest and the largest Russian research institution in the field of comprehensive studies of the Polar Regions.
The working group is a network of academics who share a passion and interest for the arctic and subarctic regions of North America, Europe and Russia. They aim to disseminate scientific and popular topics on the North to a wider, mostly German speaking, public. They are "speakers" for the people of the North and want to spread information on their social, political, environmental and cultural concerns. For this purpose they organize public events such as conferences, exhibitions, film nights, and round tables.
Academic body publishing the scientific results of the national Antarctic programme in special issues of Anais.
Website available in
The Arctic Centre at the University of Lapland is a national research institute and science centre. The Arctic Centre conducts and conveys internationally recognised, multidisciplinary research concerning Arctic issues, and it trains experts on Arctic issues and conveys information and research results concerning the region. The research, carried out throughout the Arctic and Antarctic, blends the perspectives of the natural and social sciences, and the Centre's multidisciplinary research groups study the social and environmental impacts of global and climate change as well as sustainable development and environmental and minority law.
The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum. The members are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden, and the United States of America. The scientific work of the Arctic Council is carried out in six expert working groups focusing on such issues as monitoring, assessing and preventing pollution in the Arctic, climate change, biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, emergency preparedness and prevention in addition to the living conditions of the Arctic residents.
National Associate Member of SCAR.
ACAP is a multilateral agreement which seeks to conserve albatrosses and petrels by coordinating international activity to mitigate known threats to albatross and petrel populations. ACAP came into force in February 2004 and currently has 13 member countries and covers 29 species of albatrosses and petels.
Working group of the Arctic Council which was formally given working group status at the Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting in Salekhard, Russia in October 2006. Prior to that it had operated as a steering committee called the Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution in the Arctic with a mandate to increase efforts to limit and reduce emissions of pollutants into the environment and promote international cooperation. The goal of ACAP continues to be to reduce emissions of pollutants into the environment in order to reduce the identified pollution risks. ACAP also encourages national actions for Arctic State governments to take remedial and preventive actions relating to contaminants and other releases of pollutants. ACAP acts as a strengthening and supporting mechanism to encourage national actions to reduce emissions and other releases of pollutants.
The Arctic Coastal Biodiversity (ACBio) project highlights a suite of pressing environmental issues in the circum-Arctic, and is designed for the assessment of biodiversity and biodiversity modeling to address these issues. Project deliverables include on-line databases, habitat maps, biodiversity assessments and biological community models, recommended approaches to scenario building, and guidelines for Arctic coastal zone management. ACBio is organized as a project that applies fundamental interdisciplinary science to a series of pressing conservation and management needs.
The Arctic coastal zone is sensitive to changes in marine, atmospheric, and terrestrial systems. The international effort to align coastal observations in the Arctic is led by the Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network (ACCO-Net). ACCO-Net includes a network of key sites setup by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) project of the IASC, and 17 International Polar Year (IPY) projects from around the Arctic. ACCO-Net provides three categories of support to an SAON: 1) a network of regional experts responsible for running observations; 2) historical and current data in an Arctic circumpolar GIS database; and 3) a catalogue of site characteristics based on remotely sensed products.
The Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-national forum to exchange ideas and information. The overall objective of ACD is to improve our understanding of circum-Arctic coastal dynamics as a function of environmental forcing, coastal geology and cryology and morphodynamic behavior.
ACE is an international research initiative that has grown out of the ANTOSTRAT (ANTarctic Offshore STRATigraphy) project. ANTOSTRAT originated in 1990 as an offshoot project of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Group of Specialists on the Evolution of Cenozoic Paleoenvironments of the Southern High Latitudes. The ANTOSTRAT program officially came to an end in July 2002. The goal of ACE is to continue the study of Antarctic climate and glacial history through paleoclimate and ice sheet modeling studies, purposefully integrated with geological investigations of the proxy record of ancient Antarctic climates and ice sheets. ACE is now an official SCAR program.
ACE CRC leads Australia's effort to understand the roles of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the global climate system and climate change. ACE CRC research focuses on projecting future changes in sea level, understanding the ocean's processing of greenhouse gases and managing marine ecosystems, as well as analysing the policy implications of their science.
An international project of the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), to evaluate and synthesize knowledge on climate variability, climate change, and increased ultraviolet radiation and their consequences. The results of the assessment were released at the ACIA International Scientific Symposium held in Reykjavik, Iceland in November 2004.
The Alaska Climate Research Center is a research and service organization at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. ACRC conducts research focusing on Alaska and polar regions climatology and archives climatological data for Alaska. The primary mission of this center is to respond to inquiries concerning the meteorology and climatology of Alaska from public, private, and government agencies, and from researchers around the world. ACRC provides services within the three tiered system (state, regional, and federal).
Representing a significant resource of academic expertise and experience, the Association plays a key role in training the next generation of northern researchers through a variety of ways. ACUNS' mandate is to:
represent the interests of member universities and colleges by encouraging government and private sector policies and practices that support northern scholarship;
initiate programs to increase public awareness of northern studies and research in Canada;
establish mechanisms through which resources can be allocated to member universities and colleges for the purpose of increasing knowledge of the North and ensures an appropriate number of trained and skilled northern scientists, managers, and educators;
enhance opportunities for northern people, particularly indigenous northerners, to become leaders and promoters of excellence in education and research matters important to the North;
facilitate, through conferences, seminars, research and other methods, the understanding and resolution of Arctic issues; and
co-operate with other public, private, and international organizations concerned with the advancement, application, and impact of northern scholarship.
ADMAP has been providing a unique opportunity for integrating scientific research and investigations over Antarctica last several years. ADMAP has the potential to enable a broad range of scientific communities all over the world to have greatly aided geologic studies of Antarctica where almost 99% of the continent is covered by ice and snow. In particular, international attention to the Antarctic is paid considerable because of the central role of its tectonic and geologic researches in both Gondwana and Rodinia evolution, and the fact that it is the most poorly understood region of the planet. As of consequence, numerous near-surface magnetic surveys carried out by the multi-national scientific communities are very critical to unveil the evolutionary history of both paleo-continents. In addition, the state-of-art magnetic satellite missions have been carried out to augment the gaps where near-surface surveys were not done yet. Accordingly, ADMAP was launched in 1995 to compile and integrate into a digital database all exisiting near-surface and satellite mangetic anomaly data collected in Antarctica and surrounding oceans south of 60 degree. Since then, ADMAP Working Group has been updating the databases with additional surveys as well as investigating the areas of special interest.
Multilateral, non-binding agreement among Arctic states aimed at Arctic environment protection. Discussions began in 1989, with the AEPS adopted in June 1991 by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the USSR, and the United States. The AEPS deals with monitoring, assessment, protection, emergency preparedness/response, and conservation of the Arctic zone. It has been called a major political accomplishment of the post-Cold War-era.
Recognizing the importance of international cooperation and aiming to serve the common interests in polar sciences, member countries work together to provide a foundation for cooperative research activities, to present Asian achievements to international polar communities, and to encourage Asian countries' involvement in polar research.
The Alaska Geobotany Center (AGC) is dedicated to understanding northern ecosystems through the use of geographic information systems, remote sensing, field experiments, and cooperative team research projects. We share a commitment to excellence in field research and teaching with the goal of inspiring an appreciation of northern ecosystems and making our research and teaching relevant to societal issues and concerns, particularly issues relevant to the state of Alaska.
AGCS is a major research programme of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Its objective is to investigate the nature of the atmospheric and oceanic linkages between the climate of the Antarctic and the rest of the Earth system, and the mechanisms involved therein. The programme makes use of existing deep and shallow ice cores, satellite data, the output of global and regional coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models, and in-situ meteorological and oceanic data to understand the means by which signals of tropical and mid-latitude climate variability reach the Antarctic, and high latitude climate signals exported northwards. It has four major, closely linked themes of research dealing with decadal time scale variability in the Antarctic climate system, global and regional climate signals in ice cores, natural and anthropogenic forcing on the Antarctic climate system and the export of Antarctic climate signals.
The Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) archives and distributes Antarctic glaciological and cryospheric system data collected by the U.S. Antarctic Program. The AGDC Data Catalog contains data sets collected by individual investigators and products assembled from many different PI data sets, published literature, and other sources. The catalog provides useful compilations of important geophysical parameters, such as accumulation rate or ice velocity.
AGU's Vision is a worldwide scientific community that advances, through unselfish cooperation in research, an understanding of Earth and space that is used for the benefit of humanity. AGU's goals are to insure global leadership in the communication of scientific knowledge within and beyond the Earth and space science communities, to integrate Earth and space science disciplines, and to expand the effectiveness of the international network of Earth and space scientists working together to optimize scientific knowledge and its applications. They also support the growth of a diverse group of excellent Earth and space scientists to meet the needs of society and promote scientific literacy worldwide.
http://www.svs.is/AHDR/br />The Arctic Human Development Report is the first comprehensive assessment of human well-being covering the entire Arctic region. Mandated under the Arctic Council's 2002 Ministerial Declaration as a "priority project" designed to provide a "comprehensive knowledge base" for the work of the Council's Sustainable Development Programme, the AHDR was a centerpiece of the Icelandic Chairmanship of the Arctic Council during 2002-2004.
http://www.aleut-international.org/br />AIA was formed by the Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, U. S., one of the thirteen regional not-for-profit Alaska Native corporations created as a result of Alaska Native Settlement Claims Act in 1971, and the Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Aleut District of the Kamchatka Region of the Russian Federation (AIPNADKR). AIA is governed by a Board of Directors comprised of four Alaskan and four Russian Aleuts under the leadership of a president. The organization was formed to address environmental and cultural concerns of the extended Aleut family whose wellbeing has been connected to the rich resources of the Bering Sea for millennia.
Coordinates arctic research vessels.
The institute's mandate is to advance the study of the North American and circumpolar Arctic through the natural and social sciences, the arts and humanities and to acquire, preserve and disseminate information on physical, environmental and social conditions in the North.
Provides links to map resources, including bathymetric maps of the Arctic Ocean and historical maps.
AMAP is an international organization established in 1991 to implement components of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS). Now a programme group of the Arctic Council, AMAP's current objective is "providing reliable and sufficient information on the status of, and threats to, the Arctic environment, and providing scientific advice on actions to be taken in order to support Arctic governments in their efforts to take remedial and preventive actions relating to contaminants".
The goals of the Association are to "promote knowledge of polar and subpolar regions, promote and maintain southern and Antarctic friendly relations, to maintain among its members a bond of solidarity"
A directory of datasets pertaining to the Antarctic, including cryospheric, atmospheric, and hydrological data. Also includes datasets from Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projects.
The ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) Project is an international consortium of more than 200 scientists, students, and educators from Germany, Italy, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ANDRILL will use a combination of techniques that include geophysical surveys, stratigraphic drilling and core analysis, and numerical modeling to study the climate, ice sheet and tectonic evolution of Antarctica during the last 55 million years.
Promotes, conducts, and coordinates research concerning snow, avalanches, and avalanche formation in order to predict avalanches and minimize death and injury. Disseminates information about avalanches to the public. Research activities include: studies of snowdrift and avalanche dynamics; creation of physical and mathematical models to simulate avalanches; avalanche prediction; satellite remote sensing of snowfall in France; implementation of electronic and other apparatus as search aids to buried avalanche victims; and setting off avalanches using explosives and other means. Holds annual conference
Led by Ohio State University, A-NET is a GPS/Seismic network spanning West Antarctica. A-NET is unique in that its backbone network consists of both GPS and seismic instrumentation, allowing for a more complete understanding of the interactions between the ice sheets and the underlying bedrock. A-NET is using improved technologies to record measurements year-round and to transmit data from remote sites to archives in the USA. This project is a part of POLENET (The Polar Earth Observing Network), a global network dedicated to observing the polar regions in a changing world.
The Abisko Scientific Research Station, ANS, is an institution belonging to The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The Station's mission is to provide Swedish and foreign visiting scientists with the opportunity of conducting scientific work based on the particular conditions of the subarctic environment surrounding the Station and also to conduct such research with its own personnel.
The Antarctic Connection(TM) is an internet based retailer and information source for All Things Antarctic(TM). Our mission is to be the best and widest source for premium Antarctic related products. We strive to be a responsible booking agent for travel to this pristine continent. And we aim to provide accurate and extensive news, weather and information from and about the frozen continent.
Antarctic Tasmania's mission is to promote Tasmania as a centre for Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and temperate marine activity and ensure that national and international communities recognise and use Tasmania as a gateway to the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. Our objectives are to:
- Increase the participation of local companies in the supply of goods and services to the Antarctic sector
- Increase the number and satisfaction of Antarctic sector organisations using Hobart as a base for their operations and resupply activities
- Promote Hobart's Antarctic community to Tasmanians, the international Antarctic community and potential visitors.
The combined IPA working group on Antarctic Permafrost and SCAR expert group on Antarctic Soils, Permafrost and Periglacial Environments, in close working relationship with the IUSS cryosols group, have launched the ANTPAS project to address some of the current shortcomings and research needs. The overall aim is to develop an internationally coordinated, web-accessible, database and monitoring system on Antarctic permafrost and soils. Specific objectives are:
- A common, web-accessible repository for permafrost and soils data.
- The production of thematic maps on Antarctic permafrost and soils.
- A system of boreholes providing data on permafrost and soils properties, records of past environmental change, and recording permafrost responses to climate change.
- A well-designed monitoring system recording active layer and periglacial process responses to climate change along selected environmental gradients.
Antarctica New Zealand is the Crown Entity responsible for developing, managing and executing New Zealand Government activities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, in particular the Ross Dependency. Antarctica New Zealand manages Scott Base, New Zealand's Antarctic research station. It maintains New Zealand's operational presence in the Ross Dependency for the benefit of present and future generations of New Zealanders. Key activities include supporting scientific research, conserving the intrinsic values of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and raising public awareness (in part through arts, media and youth programmes) of the international significance of the continent.
The Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMIP) is an international effort to identify systematic errors in Arctic Ocean models under realistic forcing. The main research goals are to examine the ability of Arctic Ocean models to simulate variability on seasonal to interannual scales, and to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the behaviour of different Arctic Ocean models. AOMIP's major objective is to use a suite of sophisticated models to simulate the Arctic Ocean circulation for the periods 1948-2004 and 1901-2004. Model results will be contrasted and compared to understand model strengths and weaknesses. AOMIP will bring together the international modeling community for a comprehensive evaluation and validation of current Arctic Ocean models. The project will provide valuable information on improving Arctic Ocean models and will result in a better understanding of the processes that maintain the Arctic's observed variability.
AON is an NSF initiative for the International Polar Year (IPY) to improve observational capabilities in the Arctic and leave a long-term legacy for the benefit of science and society. AON data will contribute to scientific research leading to (1) increased knowledge and understanding of the regional and global causes and consequences of present-day environmental Arctic Change, (2) scenarios for and prediction of the course of future Arctic Change and its regional and global consequences, and (3) the development of adaptive responses to Arctic Change. AON is integral to the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH). AON currently consists of 35 projects funded by the NSF Office of Polar Programs. The AON projects fall into the following SEARCH Implementation Plan categories: Atmosphere; Ocean and Sea Ice; Hydrology/Cryosphere; Terrestrial Ecosystems; and Human Dimensions. CADIS will support all these projects, as well as the IASOA (International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere) program.
The Arctic Ocean Sciences Board (AOSB) is a non-governmental body that includes members and participants from research and governmental institutions in Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The long-term mission of the AOSB is to facilitate Arctic Ocean research by the support of multinational and multidisciplinary natural science and engineering programs.
The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere.
Our goals include creating opportunities for the development of innovative, international, and interdisciplinary collaborations among current early career polar researchers as well as recruiting, retaining and promoting the next generation of polar enthusiasts. Specifically we aim to:
- Create a network of polar researchers across disciplines and national boundaries to meet, share ideas and experiences, and develop new research directions and collaborations
- Provide the opportunity for career development for both traditional and alternative polar and cryosphere professions
- Promote education and outreach as an integral component of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers
APEX is a network research programme aiming to understand Arctic climatic changes beyond instrumental records. Our particular emphasis is to focus on the magnitude/frequency of the climate variability and, in particular, the "extremes" versus the "normal" conditions of the climate system. It is an interdisciplinary programme that integrates marine and terrestrial science and utilises modelling and field observations. APEX involves scientists from 15 European countries, Canada and USA and is one of the coordinating programmes for palaeoclimate research during the International Polar Year. APEX is endorsed by the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC).
Promotes public understanding of Antarctica through lectures, publications and exhibitions.
The Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison (ARCMIP) aims to improve the simulation of the Arctic regional climate in numerical models. The primary ARCMIP activities focus on coordinated simulations by different regional climate models and general circulation models. Output from these models are compared and evaluated using observations from satellites, in situ measurements and field experiments. The first ARCMIP intercomparison Project is using data obtained in 1997 and 1998 during the SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean). ARCMIP has been organized under the auspices of the WCRP GEWEX Cloud System Studies Working Group on Polar Clouds and the ACSYS Numerical Experimentation Group. Funding for coordination of ARCMIP activities is provided by the International Arctic Research Consortium, and the Global Implications of Arctic Climate Process and Feedbacks (GLIMPSE) Project (funded by the European Union).
The Arctic Regional Ocean Observing System (Arctic ROOS) was established by a group of 14 member institutions from nine European countries working actively with ocean observation and modelling systems for the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. Arctic ROOS will promote, develop and maintain operational monitoring and forecasting of ocean circulation, water masses, ocean surface conditions, sea ice and biological/chemical constituents. One of the goals of Arctic ROOS is to contribute to the legacy of IPY, maintaining cost-effective and useful observing systems after the end of IPY. Arctic ROOS intends to include more members from countries outside of Europe and become a GOOS Regional Alliance for the Arctic. Arctic ROOS has established a secretariat at the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center in Norway.
The Arctic Portal provides a comprehensive gateway to the Arctic on the internet, increases co-operation between both public and private parties across the Arctic and grants exposure to Arctic related information. The Arctic Portal is an endorsed IPY-Project #388 lead by Iceland's Senior Arctic Official in consultation and co-operation with other members of the Arctic Council and its Working Groups, Permanent Participants, Northern Forum, UArctic, The Arctic Centre at the University of Lapland, The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of Roshydromet, The International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry and others. Initially, it was mainly focused on the needs of the Arctic Council and its working groups and it is already functioning as such, with integrated document library and an integrated project directory, advanced search, interactive mapping, homepages for AC projects, etc. The initiative has received wide support among parties that deal with Arctic and Nordic matters, professionals, institutions and politicians. For example, the Arctic Portal and the University of the Arctic have good collaboration and will work together in various projects in the future.
Issued annually, the Arctic Report Card is a timely source for clear, reliable and concise environmental information on the state of the Arctic, relative to historical time series records. Some of the essays are based upon updates to articles in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society State of the Climate in 2009. Material presented in the Report Card is prepared by an international team of scientists. The Arctic Report Card is collaboratively supported by the international Arctic Council. The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) provides collaborative support through the delivery and editing of the biological elements of the Report Card. The audience for the Arctic Report Card is wide, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public interested in Arctic environment and science. The web-based format facilitates future timely updates of the content.
ArcticStat is a permanent, public and independent statistical database dealing with the countries, regions and populations of the Circumpolar Arctic. ArcticStat was born out of the desire to facilitate comparative research on the socioeconomic conditions of the peoples of the Arctic by bringing together already existing data which are dispersed and often hard to find.
The ARCTOS research network was established in 2002 after the initiative from scientists at The Norwegian College of Fishery Science/University of Tromsø (UiT), the Norwegian Polar Institute, UNIS (The University centre at Svalbard) and Akvaplan-niva. Later, scientists from the Institute of Geology (UiT), the Institute of Marine Research and Bodø University College have joined, as well as scientists in several other institutions in Norway. ARCTOS is organized with a secretariat at UiT, and with part of its administrative activities localized at UNIS, Akvaplan-niva and IMR.
The Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), based in Fairbanks, Alaska, was formed in 1988 as a nonprofit member consortium of educational and scientific institutions that have a substantial commitment to arctic research. ARCUS facilitates discussion of important arctic research initiatives, produces science reports with research community recommendations for arctic science priorities, and distributes information resources to the arctic research community. ARCUS activities are funded through member dues and contracts and grants with federal and private entities. ARCUS is a non-profit corporation consisting of institutions organized and operated for educational, professional, or scientific purposes. An institution is considered eligible for membership in ARCUS if it has made a definitive, substantial, and continuing commitment to a coherent research program or course of studies leading to degrees in one or more disciplines associated with Arctic research or related fields. The representatives of member institutions constitute the Council of ARCUS and elect the Board of Directors.
The Aurora Research Institute (ARI) operates three facilities in the Northwest Territories, Canada - in Inuvik, Yellowknife and the other in Fort Smith. These facilities provide support to researchers operating in those areas. Support services are available to anyone conducting research, regardless of the sponsoring agency. Aurora Research Institute's mandate is to improve the quality of life for NWT's residents by applying scientific, technological and indigenous knowledge to solve northern problems and advance social and economic goals. As such, Aurora Research Institute is responsible for:
- Licensing and coordinating research in accordance with the NWT Scientists Act;
- promoting communication between researchers and the people of the communities in which they work;
- promoting public awareness of the importance of science, technology and indigenous knowledge;
- fostering a scientific community within the NWT which recognizes and uses the traditional knowledge of northern aboriginal peoples;
- making scientific and traditional knowledge available to people of the NWT; and
- supporting or conducting research which contributes to the social, cultural and economic prosperity of the people of the NWT.
Independent private institution founded by a group of Arctic explorers to promote study and disseminate information concerning the Arctic, especially Greenland. Expedition archives were deposited here, an Arctic library established, and a large photographic collection comprising ca. 60,000 photographs of Greenland dating back to ca. 1850. Since 1993, it has been co-located with the Danish Polar Centre (Danish Ministry of Research).
The mission of the ArcticNet Student Association (ASA) is to broaden the ArcticNet student experience by promoting student learning, leadership, research and networking opportunities between students, academics, governmental partners, and northerners. ASA members include all undergraduate and graduate students as well as post-doctoral fellows working in collaboration or under the supervision of researchers affiliated with ArcticNet. Students and fellows not directly affiliated with ArcticNet are welcome to participate in the ASA as non-voting members.
The Antarctic Science Advisory Committee (ASAC), through the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), assists the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, in the development of the science strategy, evaluation of science quality, advice on the infrastructure and capability required to support the science program, and alignment with national and international science programs. The Antarctic Science Advisory Committee (ASAC), in collaboration with the wider Antarctic scientific committee, sets the scientific directions of Australia's Antarctic Science Program Science Strategy.
The mission of the Alaska Science Center is to provide objective and timely data, information, and research findings about the earth and its flora and fauna to federal, state, and local resource managers and the public to support sound decisions regarding natural resources, natural hazards, and ecosystems in Alaska and circumpolar regions.
Association of organizations concerned with environmental issues in these regions. Members include Greenpeace and the Antarctica Project in addition to other environmental groups. Major campaigns include the Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, which works to protect the base of the Antarctic food web, regulating Antarctic tourism, protecting the Ross Sea, strengthening the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary, managing Southern Ocean Fisheries sustainably, and implementing the Environment Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. ASOC has recognized NGO status at the United Nations.
The purpose of the summit was to provide opportunities for international coordination, collaboration and cooperation in all areas of Arctic science and to combine science and management meetings. The ASSW also offered insight into Arctic research undertaken by the host country. Side meetings organized by other groups with interests in Arctic science and policy took place at the same time.
From 1961 to 1994 the ATCM generally met once every two years, but since 1994 the meetings have occurred annually. Measures, Decisions and Resolutions, which are adopted at the ATCM by consensus, give effect to the principles of the Antarctic Treaty and the Environment Protocol and provide regulations and guidelines for the management of the Antarctic Treaty area and the work of the ATCM. Decisions, which address internal organizational matters of the ATCM, and Resolutions, which are hortatory texts, are not legally binding on Contracting Parties. In contrast, Measures are legally binding on the Consultative Parties once they have been approved by all Consultative Parties. Only the Consultative Parties take part in decision-making. Other participants in the meeting, however, may contribute to the discussions.
The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is an organization created by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) for the management of several ATCM tasks such as the support of the annual meeting of signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty, and the publication of the ATCM annual report.
The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington in 1959 to establish Antarctica as a region of peace and cooperation, and to deal with issues relating to claims of sovereignty. Its primary purpose is to ensure "in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord." The Treaty is at the core of a number of related agreements which, together with the measures taken under the Antarctic Treaty and related agreements are often called the Antarctic Treaty system. The other agreements making up the system are:
- the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 1991)
- the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS, London, 1972)
- the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR, Canberra, 1980)
Website available in
The Alfred Wegener Institute carries out research in the Arctic and Antarctic as well as in the high and mid latitude oceans. The institute coordinates German polar research and makes available to national and international science important infrastructure, e.g. the research ice breaker "Polarstern" and research stations in the Arctic and Antarctic.
Who's Who - Polar Acronyms
We all know there are loads of acronyms in Polar Science and its often hard to remember what they all stand for. Thanks to a few dedicated APECS members we are happy to share this Who's Who of Polar Science list. Have fun learning about the many neat areas of polar science and if there are things that aren't on this list, just let us know and we'll be happy to add them!
The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) is the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Designated Data Centre for the Atmospheric Sciences. The role of the BADC is to assist UK atmospheric researchers to locate, access and interpret atmospheric data and to ensure the long-term integrity of atmospheric data produced by NERC projects.
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The Bulgarian Antarctic Institute is the framework for the organization and co-ordination of the Antarctic campaigns. The Institute organizes annual Antarctic campaigns and operates the Bulgarian Antarctic base "St. Kliment Ohridski". The main topics include: Earth sciences, such as geology, geophysics, physics, glaciology, meteorology, cartography, Life sciences-zoology, botany and ecology and Human medicine. Research work is implemented by means of 3-years projects undertaken by University based or academic scientists. Emphasis is given on a multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the pattern and processes in main polar natural systems and of their evolution.
The data for the oceanographic data atlas collected by ocean research organizations in Russia, the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany, Norway, and Poland for the Barents, Kara and White Seas region. More than 1,000,000 oceanographic stations containing temperature and/or sea-water salinity data were originally selected. After correcting errors and eliminating duplicates, data from 206,300 checked stations were placed on CD-ROM, together with many figures describing the characteristics of both the single-input and combined data set. For convenience, the original profiles and those excluded at every quality-control step are also included on the CD-ROM.
The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) has a long and distinguished history of carrying out research and surveys in the Antarctic and surrounding regions, undertaking most of the British research on the frozen continent. As a major research centre of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), BAS:
- Provide a national capability for Antarctic science and logistics
- Carry out scientific research, long-term observations and surveys that cannot be done by anyone else in the UK
- Provide a focus for international co-operation and programme co-ordination
- Concentrate on issues fundamental to NERC's science strategy and conservation of the Antarctic environment
The Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC) is dedicated to the encouragement of research and educational activities pertaining to Alaska's North Slope, the adjacent portions of the Arctic Ocean, and in Chukotka, Russia. BASC is a community-based organization dedicated to helping make closer contacts between scientists and community members. We provide logistical support for Arctic research and strive to facilitate the exchange of knowledge between scientific researchers and the people of the North Slope. Principal Investigators are encouraged to discuss logistics needs with BASC prior to submitting their proposals.
The overall objective of the Baltic Air-Sea-Ice Study (BASIS) is to create and analyze an experimental data set for optimization and verification of coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean models. The specific objectives cover:
- Investigation of water budget and momentum and thermal interaction at air-ice, air-sea and sea-ice boundaries
- Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)
- Investigation of the ocean boundary layer (OBL)
- Validation of coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean models.
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The Belgian Polar Platform website from the Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) meant to inform scientists, policy makers and the general public about:
- the Belgian history and science in the poles
- laws and treaties regulating polar activities and Belgium's involvement
- the rules and obligations related to the planning of polar activities
- publications, workshops and events regarding polar activities
A completed study of the consequences of climate change for Alaska and the Bering Sea Region. Publications available online.
From these pages you will find real-time information of the Baltic Sea level and wave height, about ice conditions in winter time and algae blooms in summer time. In addition, pages contain forecasts for example wave height and sea surface temperature, as well as information on Baltic Sea research and preservation.
The purpose of the Baltic Sea Ice Services (BSIS) is to create a harmonised range of ice information products and services for the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters which will be tailored to the needs of users and will provide a better basis for decision making, thus contributing to the safety of navigation. The integrated service will combine the strengths of the existing ice services and, through synergy effects and improved efficiency, will result in a seamless range of high-quality products.
Named in honor of one of America's most famous explorers, the Byrd Polar Research Center of The Ohio State University is recognized internationally as a leader in polar and alpine research. The Center's research programs are conducted throughout the world. Research at the Center focuses on the role of cold regions in the global climate system, with major themes focused on:
- climatic reconstruction of glacial and post-glacial times;
- polar ice-sheets: dynamics, history and ice-atmosphere interactions;
- high-latitude landform evolution, soils and hydrology;
- geologic evolution of Antarctica;
- investigations of ocean dynamics and environmental-chemical processes;
- and the history of polar exploration.
The Canadian Avalanche Association is a not-for-profit, non-government organization that serves and supports the diverse community of professional avalanche operations in Canada.
Affiliated to State Oceanic Administration, People's Republic of China. Its function is to organize, coordinate and manage Chinese polar exploration. Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration (CAA), which is affiliated to the State Oceanic Administration (SOA) of China, responsible for the organization of Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Program, as well as logistic support to the Antarctic expedition. Within the principles and framework of Antarctic Treaty System, supported by the two year-round base in Antarctica, namely the Great Wall station and Zhongshan station, and with addition of R/V Xuelong as a platform, CAA has been actively implementing its scientific research scheme in Antarctica and Southern Ocean. The China Arctic Yellow River station was found in 2004 in Ny-Alesund, which provides China more opportunity to increase its scientific research scope in Arctic. China also organized its two Arctic scientific cruise by R/V Xuelong in 1999 and 2003 in the area of Bering Sea, Chukchi sea. So far, 23 Antarctic expeditions and 3 Arctic scientific team have been organized. China is making its contributions to the scientific research and peaceful use both in Antarctica and Arctic.
The Circumpolar Agricultural Association is a non-governmental organization concerned with northern agricultural science, practices and policies. It was founded in 1995 in Tromsø, Norway on the ideas set out at the 1st Circumpolar Agricultural Conference (CAC) which was held in Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada in 1992. On this website, you will find information about the Circumpolar Agricultural Association and the coming CAC.
A directory of datasets pertaining to the Antarctic, including cryospheric, atmospheric, and hydrological data. A division of the Australian Antarctic Data Centre.
The Canadian Avalanche Centre (CAC) is a non-government, not for profit organization dedicated to public avalanche safety. The CAC came into existence in 2004 with the support and collaboration of federal, provincial and private sector agencies involved in avalanche safety.
CADIC-CONICET - Centro Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicashttp://www.cadic.gov.ar/ (Spanish)
To promote, support and implement scientific work in the field of science dealing with the nature, properties, and phenomena in Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and adjacent regions, which by their peculiar locations are unique sites of scientific interest.
The Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) supports the Arctic Observing Network (AON). It will be a portal for data discovery, and provide near-real-time data delivery, a repository for data storage, and tools to manipulate data
The Canadian Avalanche Foundation / Fondation Canadienne des Avalanches is a federally registered charity formed to provide a tax-deductible fundraising mechanism for the support of public avalanche safety initiatives.
CAFF's mandate is to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and communicate the findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure sustainability of the Arctic's living resources. The conservation of biodiversity is a necessary condition for sustainable development. Arctic biodiversity is experiencing stress from a number of factors such as climate change and rapid economic growth in the Arctic region, as well as the loss of wintering habitats for those species migrating outside the Arctic region. CAFF Secretariat is located in Akureyri, Iceland. CAFF Chairmanship is currently held by Iceland.
The primary goal of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program is to observe the response of the active layer and near-surface permafrost to climate change over long (multi-decadal) time scales. The CALM observational network, established in the 1990s, observes the long-term response of the active layer and near-surface permafrost to changes and variations in climate at more than 125 sites in both hemispheres. CALM currently has participants from 15 countries.
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The aim of the Centre is to provide the framework for and to strengthen research within the field of Arctic environmental medicine, to undertake and strengthen the collaboration between the research institutes and organisations national and international, to coordinate research on Arctic environmental medicine, to coordinate collaborative programmes within the fields of environmental and health research in the Arctic.
CAML will investigate the distribution and abundance of Antarctica's vast marine biodiversity to develop a benchmark for the benefit of humankind.
The Canadian Quaternary Association is a group devoted to the study of the Quaternary period, the last 2 million years of Earth's history. This inter-disciplinary group includes geographers, geologists, archaeologists, botanists, biologists and many more. CANQUA was founded in 1975, and membership is open to all interested in Canadian Quaternary studies.
CAPE is proposed as an organization within IGBP-PAGES to provide the vehicle through which international and national Arctic paleo-programs can be linked. The primary emphasis of CAPE is to facilitate scientific integration of paleoenvironmental research on terrestrial environments and adjacent margins covering the last 250,000 years of Earth history, particularly those tasks that cannot easily be achieved by individual investigators or even regionally focused research teams. Circumpolar syntheses of environmental reconstructions for specific time slices or key time series will be accomplished through focused international meetings that are intended to bring together the primary data and modeling communities.
The International Permafrost Association 'Carbon Pools in Permafrost Regions' project (in short, the IPA CAPE project) aims at quantifying below-ground organic matter quantity and quality along ecoclimatic and edaphic gradients in high latitude and high altitude regions characterized by the presence of isolated to continuous permafrost. The CAPE project will coordinate its activities with other international programs and develop a network of scientists engaged in this type of research. A first step is to update the existing database on Carbon in Cryosols with additional data, also from non-permafrost sites in permafrost regions.
The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System Version 2.0 (CAPS 2) is an update to CAPS Version 1.0, and is the second five-year compilation of permafrost and frozen ground-related data and information products with a global perspective. CAPS 2 was compiled by the International Permafrost Association's (IPA) Standing Committee on Data, Information, and Communication (SCDIC) and the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and was published online and on CD-ROM in 2003. CAPS is a major component of the IPA's Global Geocryological Data (GGD) system, an internationally distributed system of linked data centers or nodes. NSIDC and the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) developed the Frozen Ground Data Center (FGDC) as a central node in the GGD system. The CAPS 2 CD-ROM is intended to be a snapshot of FGDC data and metadata holdings as of spring 2003.
CARC is a citizens' organization dedicated to the long-term environmental and social well being of northern Canada and its peoples. We believe in sustainable development and the application of the precautionary principle. Our policy and advocacy work is grounded in solid scientific and socio-economic research and experience.
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Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Abbreviated as CAREERI, CAS) is a newly re-organized institute in June 1999 from former three institutes of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Lanzhou, the Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, the Institute of Desert Research and Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics. The new institute aims at disciplinary integration and scientific synthesis, based on retaining the unique and distinguished present disciplines. Now there are 200 full-time employees, with 55 titled as professors, in the new institute.
CARMA is a network of researchers, managers and community people who share information on the status of the world's wild Rangifer (reindeer and caribou) populations, and how they are affected by global changes, such as climate change and industrial development.
The extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice vary considerably from year to year and over decadal time scales. Assessing the effects of present variability in sea ice cover on Arctic marine ecosystems and regional climate requires a substantial improvement in our understanding of the links between freshwater and sea ice, sea ice and climate, and sea ice and biogeochemical fluxes. The need for data is particularly strong for the shallow coastal shelf regions (30% of the Arctic basin) where variability in the extent, thickness and duration of sea ice is most pronounced and where Arctic marine food webs are most vulnerable to change. Toward that goal, the CASES Research Network was funded in March 2001 by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) to conduct the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES), an international effort under Canadian leadership to understand the biogeochemical and ecological consequences of sea ice variability and change on the Mackenzie Shelf.
CASP is a not-for-profit charitable trust carrying out field, literature and analysis-based geological research in prospective hydrocarbon basins. Funding comes entirely from subscriptions by the oil and gas industry. Subscribers to CASP projects receive regular confidential reports and updates. The results of research are published in internationally renowned scientific journals after a suitable delay.
The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) project is an international effort to map the vegetation and associated characteristics of the circumpolar region, using a common base map. The base map is a false color infrared image created from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data. The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) shows the types of vegetation that occur across the Arctic, between the ice-covered Arctic Ocean to the north and the northern limit of forests to the south.
The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources came into force in 1982, as part of the Antarctic Treaty System, in pursuance of the provisions of Article IX of the Treaty. It was established mainly in response to concerns that an increase in krill catches in the Southern Ocean could have a serious effect on populations of krill and other marine life; particularly on birds, seals and fish, which mainly depend on krill for food.
The Canadian Circumpolar Institute (CCI) promotes and supports research, education and training related to the boreal and circumpolar regions (Arctic and Antarctica). The core activities of the CCI relate to its role as a service provider to faculties and units across campus by facilitating, developing and supporting interdisciplinary circumpolar research and education programs, as well as community engagement. It aligns its programs to support faculty- and department-based initiatives in northern research and scholarship.
The Climate Change Institute is an interdisciplinary research unit organized to conduct research and graduate education focused on variability of Earth's climate, ecosystems, and other environmental systems and on the interaction between humans and the natural world.
The Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN) was established by Natural Resources Canada in 2001 with the mandate of promoting and encouraging research on climate change impacts and adaptation, as well as promoting interaction between researchers and stakeholders. The many products of C-CIARN, such as workshop and conference reports, posters and other communication products, remain accessible to the public through this website, as well as, in a number of cases, through the website of organizations that hosted a C-CIARN office and that continue to carry out impacts and adaptation work.
The Canadian Cryospheric Information Network (CCIN) has been developed through a collaborative partnership between the Federal Government (Canadian Space Agency, Meteorological Service of Canada, Natural Resources Canada), Dr. Ellsworth LeDrew at the University of Waterloo and the private sector (Noetix Research Inc.) over the past decade to provide the data and information management infrastructure for the Canadian cryospheric community. The main objective of the CCIN is to enhance awareness and access to Canadian cryospheric information and related data.
The Chinese Cryospheric Information System (CCIS) is an integrated Geographic Information System for storing, managing and analyzing the cryospheric data within China.
The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), Natural Resources Canada is the Government of Canada's centre of excellence for remote sensing and geodesy. In partnership with many government stakeholders, through strong links to academia and private sector, and via international collaborations, CCRS ensures that satellite data works to serve the needs of Canadians.
The commitment of the Antarctic Data Centre is to update the information included in due course, in addition to including information about new projects and research. The format for the inclusion of metadata, with detailed descriptions, enables users to locate using several different ways of searching (institution, subject, keyword, resources, location, researchers, coordinates, etc).
Météo France, Service météorologique national français, dispose, pour mener ses recherches sur la neige et les avalanches, d'un Centre d'études de la neige (CEN), situé à Grenoble. Ce centre fait partie du Centre national de recherches météorologiques (CNRM) spécialisé dans les études et recherches sur la neige et les avalanches. Le CNRM assure l'essentiel des activités de recherche, et coordonne l'ensemble des actions de recherche/développement conduites au sein de Météo France. Ces actions de recherche et de développement sont orientées en priorité par les besoins du service public en matière de météorologie : prévision météorologique, physique et dynamique de l'atmosphère, connaissance du climat, interactions entre l'homme, le climat et l'atmosphère.
Circumarctic Environmental Observatories Network (CEON) is a network of terrestrial and freshwater observation platforms, science experts and network partners promoting the collection and dissemination of environmental data from the Arctic. CEON observation platforms include land and freshwater observatories, research infrastructures, former research sites where retrospective analyses are being or can be undertaken, data and image archive centers and community monitoring programs.
‘CEOP' was part of the initial GHP strategy to help coordinate the diverse GEWEX CSE activities to understand and model the influence of continental hydroclimate processes on the predictability of global atmospheric circulation and changes in water resources. As a contribution to ‘CEOP', the CSEs identified high-quality in situ measurements at several global locations that would be able to provide coordinated global measurements during the period 2001-2004.
Established in 1984, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. Currently 28 space agencies along with 20 other national and international organizations participate in CEOS planning and activities.
As of April 1st,2006, the institute started anew as Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Regions through the integration with Public Works Research Institute. The new Institute will continue fulfilling the task of supporting the development of Hokkaido through investigation, examination, research and development of civil engineering technologies as well as dissemination of research result to cold regions and other areas.
C-FER, originally the Centre for Frontier Engineering Research, incorporated on November 7, 1983 and opened its doors for business on April 1st, 1984 with a mandate to attack problems related to material, fabrication, design, regulations, transportation and construction of structures required for arctic and offshore development in Canada. To provide innovative solutions and unique engineering, testing, and applied research services.
Since 1895 work in Italy the Italian Glaciological Committee (CGI), with the aim to promote and coordinate research in the field of glaciology. Born as a commission for the study of Italian glaciers in the Italian Alpine Club, the CGI becomes an autonomous body since 1915, with support from the National Research Council and other agencies and organizations interested in glaciological research.
The Chilean Antarctic Information Network (CHAIN) is a compilation of services which seeks to fill the need for polar logistical support. It is a network of information and opportunity, oriented towards Antarctic operators that require goods and services, using the city of Punta Arenas, Chile, as an operations base.
CHS's exceptional nautical charts and navigational products help ensure the safe navigation of Canada's waterways. Our charts are the ‘road maps' that guide mariners safely from port to port. With increasing commercial shipping, fishing activity, recreational boating, and the development of ocean resources, the role of CHS is more vital than ever.
Project Categories: Atmospheric; Biological studies; Climate change study; Data handling; Food web study; Mapping/GIS; Marine; Modelling; Monitoring; Research.
Objectives/Summary: The Collaborative Interdisciplinary Cryospheric Experiment (C-ICE) is a multi-year field experiment that incorporates many individual projects, each with autonomous goals and objectives. The science conducted has directly evolved from research relating to one of four general themes: i. sea ice energy balance; ii. numerical modeling of atmospheric processes; iii. remote sensing of snow covered sea ice; and iv. ecosystem studies. The above link will provide access to C-ICE articles published in peer-reviewed journals.
The Norwegian government established CICERO (the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo) by royal decree in 1990. CICERO is an independent research center associated with the University of Oslo. CICERO conducts research on and provides information and expert advice about national and international issues related to climate change and climate policy.
The Cooperative Institute for Alaska Research (CIFAR) was established in 1994 at the University of Alaska. CIFAR fosters collaboration between NOAA, the University of Alaska, and several other U.S. universities working in the Western Arctic. CIFAR collaborates with NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Arctic Research Office, Ocean Exploration Program, NMFS, and the National Weather Service. CIFAR is also a major partner in the annual Global Change Student Research Grant Competition, conducted by the Center for Global Change (CGC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
The Climate Impacts Group (CIG) is an interdisciplinary research group studying the impacts of natural climate variability and global climate change ("global warming") on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Through research and interaction with regional stakeholders, the CIG works to increase the resilience of the Pacific Northwest to fluctuations in climate. The CIG's research focuses on four key sectors of the PNW environment: water resources, aquatic ecosystems, forests, and coasts.
CIRES researchers explore all aspects of the earth system and search for ways to better understand how natural and human-made disturbances impact our dynamic planet. Our focus on innovation and collaboration has made us a world leader in interdisciplinary research and teaching. We're committed to communicating our research in ways that help inform decision-makers and the public about how we can best ensure a sustainable future environment.
The Canadian Ice Service (CIS), a branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC), is the leading authority for information about ice in Canada's navigable waters.
As home of the Canadian Ice Service Archive (CISA), we manage a vast collection of historical ice data that is updated daily. We draw upon this data to meet the specific needs of our clients.
The CliC Project was established in March 2000 by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) to stimulate, support, and coordinate research into the processes by which the cryosphere interacts with the rest of the climate system. The cryosphere consists of the frozen portions of the globe, and includes ice sheets, glaciers, ice caps, icebergs, sea ice, snow cover and snowfall, permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, as well as lake- and river-ice. As a sensitive component of the climate system, the cryosphere may provide key indicators of climate change, and CliC will focus on identifying patterns and rates of change in cryospheric parameters.
http://www.usclivar.org/ (US CLIVAR webpage)
CLIVAR is the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) project that addresses Climate Variability and Predictability, with a particular focus on the role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in climate. It works closely with its companion WCRP projects on issues such as the role of the land surface, snow and ice and the role of stratospheric processes in climate.
The China Meteorological Administration (CMA) has been a public service agency, which is directly affiliated to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. At the time of its establishment in December 1949, it was the Central Military Commission Meteorological Bureau - the predecessor of CMA. Since 1994 when CMA was transformed from a subordinate governmental body into one of the public service agencies under the State Council, with the authorization by the State Council, CMA has been responsible for organizational and operational management of the national meteorological services as a whole. Under CMA's unified directives, all meteorological establishments within CMA framework follow the administrative system of hierarchical management and the dual leaderships performed by both CMA and local governments with the former as the core.
Under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) established the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) as a standard experimental protocol for studying the output of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). CMIP provides a community-based infrastructure in support of climate model diagnosis, validation, intercomparison, documentation and data access.
The Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (CMOS) is the national society of individuals and organisations dedicated to advancing atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related environmental disciplines in Canada. The Society's aim is to promote meteorology and oceanography in Canada, and it is a major non-governmental organisation serving the interests of meteorologists, climatologists, oceanographers, limnologists, hydrologists and cryospheric scientists in Canada. CMOS was officially created in 1967 as the Canadian Meteorological Society and adopted its present name in 1977, following an invitation by the Canadian Meteorological Society to the oceanographic community in Canada to join the Society. However, CMOS has a rich history dating back to 1939 when it was known as the Canadian Branch of the Royal Meteorological Society.
The National Polar Antarctic Data Centre (CNDP) includes the Spanish Polar Archive and was established due to a Spanish Polar Committee initiative that Technical Secretary coordinates all the activities corresponding to the National Antarctic Authority. The NPDC is located in the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME). Among its tasks are the metadata administration obtained from the Spanish research in the polar field and the data storage, management and spreading of the documental funds, all of this under the Spanish Polar Committee supervision.
CNFRA - Comite National Francais des Recherches Artiques et Antarctiques (French National Committee on Arctic and Antarctic Research)http://www.cnfra.org (French)
CNFRA promote studies and the French scientific research in the Arctic, sub-Arctic, Antarctic and sub-Antarctic.
Meteo France, French National Meteorological Service, provides for their research on snow and avalanches, a Centre for the Study of Snow (CEN), located in Grenoble. This center is part of the National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM) specializes in studies and research on snow and avalanches. CNRM provides the bulk of research activities, and coordinates all activities of research and development conducted within the Météo France. These research activities and development are directed primarily by the needs of public service in meteorology: weather forecasting, physical and atmospheric dynamics, knowledge of climate, interactions between humans, climate and atmosphere.
The COLDTECH Foundation was formed in 1986. From 1996 COLDTECH is an integrated part of Luleå University of Technology. The aim of COLDTECH is to support research and development within the field of cold climate technology. Luleå University of Technology has always been focusing on research and development in cold climate engineering. The theme is quite natural due to the geographical location of the university. Research is carried out within a broad area of technology, in connection with the specific demands imposed by the climate. Presently, more than 70 persons at the University are involved in research projects concerning cold climate technology.
Created in 1988, it is the international association that brings together National Antarctic Programs from around the world to develop and promote best practice in managing the support of scientific research in Antarctica. COMNAP currently brings together the National Antarctic Programs of 29 countries from Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australasia.
CoNaPA - Comitê Nacional de Pesquisas Antárticas (Brazilian National Committee on Antarctic Research)http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/7897.html (Portuguese)
This committee is responsible for promoting the liaison between the Brazilian Antarctic Programme and international Antarctic research, co-ordinated by SCAR, and for following the activities and achievements of the research undertaken by other national Antarctic programmes. CoNaPA is also an advisory body to other Brazilian organizations in the Brazilian Antarctic System. The committee is under the administration of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Brazil.
Polar-CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment - Arctic and Antarctic Domains) is part of the international CORDEX initiative. CORDEX is a WCRP-sponsored program to organize an international coordinated framework to produce an improved generation of regional climate change projections for input into impact and adaptation studies. The Polar CORDEX activities are coordinated through CliC. Currently, the core of Polar-CORDEX consists of regional climate model simulations over the Arctic, with hindcast (ERA-Interim and GCM-driven historical simulations) and scenario (GCM-driven rcp4.5, rcp8.5 simulations) simulations are conducted. This effort is now expanding to include the Antarctic region as well.
Established in 1991 as the lead agency in the area of polar research, the Canadian Polar Commission has responsibility for: monitoring, promoting, and disseminating knowledge of the polar regions; contributing to public awareness of the importance of polar science to Canada; enhancing Canada's international profile as a circumpolar nation; and recommending polar science policy direction to government.
The Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM) is a research centre that studies processes in the Earth's polar latitudes that may affect the Earth's albedo, polar atmosphere and ocean circulation, and global sea level. We use theoretical and laboratory-derived understanding to form new mesoscale models of interactions between the ice, ocean and atmosphere, and use ground and satellite observations to test the predictions of these and other climate models. CPOM is funded by the Natural Environment Research Council and is part of the National Centre for Earth Observation. It has research groups in the Department of Earth Sciences at University College London, at the Bristol Glaciology Centre at the University of Bristol and in the School of Earth and Environment at the University of Leeds.
The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) is a Science and Technology Center established by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2005, with the mission of developing new technologies and computer models to measure and predict the response of sea level change to the mass balance of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.
The Goals & Mandate of the CRRC are: to facilitate interdisciplinary research and teaching about cold regions; to facilitate academic and field training of students in a range of cold regions disciplines and locations; to provide a locus for interaction among faculty and between faculty and students interested in cold regions research and problems; to encourage cooperation and links with other cold regions research and training centres and organizations.
Our mission is to solve interdisciplinary, strategically important problems of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Army, DOD, and the Nation by advancing and applying science and engineering to complex environments, materials, and processes in all seasons and climates, with unique core competencies related to the Earth's cold regions.
The Climatic Research Unit is widely recognized as one of the world's leading institutions concerned with the study of natural and anthropogenic climate change. The Climatic Research Unit is part of the School of Environmental Sciences with close links to other research groups within the department such as the Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment. The Unit undertakes collaborative research with institutes throughout the world on a diverse range of topics and is coordinating or contributing to a number of networking activities.
The Cryospheric Ecology group studies the interactions between organisms and their environment in cryospheric ecosystems such as snow, glacier ice, and glacial sediments. We combine field sampling and experiments, laboratory analysis, and computer modelling to address important questions about how the vast cryospheric ecosystems will change in the warming world.Our current research projects are focused on providing a theoretical framework of Greenland Ice Sheet ecosystems and developing a tool for prediction of its future change, quantifying the rates of microbial metabolism of subglacial organic carbon and their environmental controls, quantifying the contribution of (micro)biological processes to surface albedo change on the Greenland Ice Sheet, and establishing the Greenland Ice Sheet as a model ecosystem for studying microbial biogeography and diversity patterns.We are part of the Department of Ecology at the Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague.
European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Explorer CryoSat mission, launched on 8 April 2010, is dedicated to precise monitoring of the changes in the thickness of marine ice floating in the polar oceans and variations in the thickness of the vast ice sheets that overlie Greenland and Antarctica. CryoSat has been developed to measure thickness change not only in sea ice but also in the ice sheets on land. In particular, CryoSat carries sophisticated technologies to measure precisely changes at the margins of these ice sheets, where other satellite altimeter technology is currently limited. By accurately measuring thickness change in both types of ice, CryoSat will provide clear information to build a more detailed picture of exactly how Earth's ice is behaving.
CRYSYS is a collaborative research project to develop capabilities for monitoring and understanding regional and large scale variations in cryospheric variables of importance to Canada (e.g. snow, sea ice, permafrost, glaciers), and to improve understanding of the role of the cryosphere in the climate system.
CSA is the Canadian government space agency responsible for Canada's space program. It was established in March 1989 by the Canadian Space Agency Act and sanctioned in December 1990. The Chief Executive Officer of the agency is the President who reports to the Minister of Industry. The headquarters of the CSA is located at John H. Chapman Space Centre in Saint-Hubert, Quebec. The agency also has offices in Ottawa, Ontario at the David Florida Laboratory (which is mainly an engineering installation) and small liaison offices in Washington, D.C.; Paris, France; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Houston, Texas.
The Captain Scott Society was established in Cardiff, UK, to commemorate the association of the City with Scott's Last Expedition and to encourage the Spirit of Adventure that he inspired.
The Circumpolar Universities Association is an organ for cooperation between universities and other institutes of higher learning and research in the northern circumpolar region. The aim of the CUA is to encourage cooperation and promote higher learning and research in northern areas. CUA is an organ for co-operation between universities and other institutes of higher learning and research in the North. The Association's role is to represent the interests of higher education in the circumpolar North to governments and non-governmental organisations.
The Cryosol Working Group (CWG) is very active team of polar soil scientists from Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Russia and USA. Besides classification and databases, CWG is also focused on the role of cryogenesis in the soil formation, the ecological problems relevant to northern soils and the consequences of the global climate change for polar soils.
Danmarks Statistic hosts a library and information centre which contains Denmark's largest collection of statistics. These statistics come not just from Denmark, but also from other countries and international organisations.
The Data Center for Glacier Research has been established by the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice in order to collect information about glaciers around the world, and to spread information to those who are interested in glaciers.
The Yamozha K’ue Society is a non-profit society incorporated under the Territorial Societies Act. It has a charitable status and membership is open to all residents of the Northwest Territories who are beneficiaries of the Dene or Metis aboriginal rights claims and over the age of 18 years. The Yamozha K’ue Society has been working to assist Dene to maintain and strengthen our distinct culture since 1987. It has concentrated on coordinating research and educational activities that protect and promote Dene culture, languages, spirituality, heritage, tradition and customs. It has also facilitated efforts by communities to preserve our culture.
The Data Distribution Centre (DDC) was established to facilitate the timely distribution of a consistent set of up-to-date scenarios of changes in climate and related environmental and socio-economic factors for use in climate impacts assessments. The initiative to establish a DDC grew out of a recommendation by the IPCC Task Group on Data and Scenario Support for Impact and Climate Analysis.
The department’s areas of responsibility include development of instruments and policy with respect to climate change and long-range transport of air pollutants, as well as international negotiations in these two areas. The department is responsible for environmental legislation and management of the natural environment on Svalbard, and international environmental cooperation in the Northern areas, the Barents Region, and bilateral cooperation with Russia.
The DFG is the self-governing organisation for science and research in Germany. It serves all branches of science and the humanities. In organisational terms, the DFG is an association under private law. Its membership consists of German research universities, non-university research institutions, scientific associations and the Academies of Science and the Humanities. The DFG receives the large majority of its funds from the states and the Federal Government, which are represented in all Grants Committees.
Now known as AANDC, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, which supports Aboriginal people (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and Northerners in their efforts to:
- improve social well-being and economic prosperity;
- develop healthier, more sustainable communities; and
- participate more fully in Canada's political, social and economic development - to the benefit of all Canadians.
DISC is one of eight NASA Science Mission Directorate groups that provide Earth science data, information, and services to research scientists, applications scientists, applications users, and students. The GES DISC is the home of NASA’s Precipitation and Hydrology data and information, as well as that data and information on Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics. The GES DISC also houses the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications data assimilation datasets, and the North American Land Data Assimilation System and Global Land Data Assimilation System data products.
Biodiversity underpins the life-support system of our planet. Both natural and managed ecosystems deliver important ecological services such as the production of food and fibre, carbon storage, climate regulation and recreation opportunities. DIVERSITAS was established to address the complex scientific questions posed by the loss in biodiversity and ecosystem services and to offer science based solutions to this crisis. DIVERSITAS is an international programme of biodiversity science with a dual mission:
- To promote an integrative biodiversity science, linking biological, ecological and social disciplines in an effort to produce socially relevant new knowledge; and
- To provide the scientific basis for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
DKRZ, the German Climate Computing Centre, provides the tools and associated services that are needed to investigate processes in the climate system: computer power, data management and the guidance to use these tools efficiently. As a national service provider, DKRZ operates a supercomputer center to enable climate simulation, and provides scientific users with the technical infrastructure needed for processing and analysis of climate data. This also includes support for related application software, and advice and support in data processing issues. Finally, DKRZ also participates in national and international joint projects with the aim of improving infrastructure for climate modeling.
DLR is Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, transportation and energy is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. As Germany's Space Agency, the German federal government has given DLR responsibility for the forward planning and implementation of the German space programme as well as international representation of Germany's interests. DLR’s mission thus comprises:
- exploration of the Earth and the solar system
- research aimed at protecting the environment
- development of environmentally-friendly technologies to promote mobility, communication and security.
Provides forecasts, warnings and weather and climate information for aviation purposes and other activities; studies, researches, manages and maintains all national weather information, with the aim of mitigating damage from weather events; helps protect people and property; and contributes to socio-economic development of the country, in a context of efficiency, effectiveness and according to quality standards.
DMI has provided meteorological information for 135 years and its warning and forecasting duties reach well beyond the Danish border, including the oceans surrounding Denmark and the world’s largest island, Greenland. Performing these tasks requires precise measurements, advanced modeling, powerful computers and skilled meteorologists.
The scientific, technical and administrative staff at the Instituto Antártico Argentino, part of Dirección Nacional del Antártico, participate in a wide range of national and international programmes for a better understanding of the Antarctic through science and research. Stations at Marguerite Bay, Hope Bay, and Filchner Ice Shelf provide venues to study a wide range of earth, sea and air sciences.
DOVETAIL is an international oceanographic research program whose main goal is to understand the physical processes in the Weddell Scotia Confluence (WSC) region sufficiently well, in order to quantify the ventilation of the World Ocean achieved by the Weddell Sea water masses. There are four related objectives in this program:
- To assess the quantity, physical and chemical characteristics of Weddell Sea source waters for the WSC.
- To describe the dominant physical processes associated with spreading and sinking of dense Antarctic waters within the WSC region.
- To estimate the ventilation rate of the World Ocean from the Weddell Sea.
- To estimate seasonal fluctuations in regional ocean transport and hydrographic structure, and assess the likely influence of interannual variability on rates of ventilation by Weddell Sea waters.
Doyon, Limited, is the Native regional corporation for Interior Alaska. It is a for-profit corporation with more than 18,000 shareholders. Established under the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), Doyon is the largest private landowner in Alaska with more than 12.5 million acres allocated to the corporation under ANCSA. Doyon’s mission is to continually enhance its position as a financially strong Native corporation in order to promote the economic and social well-being of our shareholders and future shareholders, to strengthen our Native way of life, and to protect and enhance our land and resources.
The Marine Board (a division of the European Science Foundation) was established in 1995 to facilitate enhanced cooperation between European marine science organisations (both research institutes and research funding agencies) to facilitate the development of a common vision on the research priorities and strategies for marine science in Europe. As of 2009, the Marine Board represents 30 member organisations from 19 countries. Adopting a strategic role, the Marine Board serves its member organisations by providing a forum within which marine research policy is developed, with the objective of promoting the establishment of the European Marine Research Area.
EMSO, the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory, is a large-scale European Research Infrastructure. EMSO will be based on a European-scale network of seafloor observatories and platforms with the basic scientific objective of long-term monitoring, mainly in real-time, of environmental processes related to the interaction between the geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere, including natural hazards. It will be a geographically distributed infrastructure composed of several deep-seafloor observatories that will be deployed on specific sites around European waters, reaching from the Arctic to the Black Sea passing through the Mediterranean Sea, thus forming a widely distributed pan-European infrastructure.
ENVINET is an "Infrastructure Co-operation Network" focusing on multidisciplinary environmental research in Northern Europe. The network involves 17 research stations from the European Alps to the Arctic. Each station participates in the network via a representative for its operator and scientific users. ENVINET also has representatives from relevant international organisations and networks. The participating stations cover a broad range of environmental sciences, primarily within atmospheric physics and chemistry, and marine and terrestrial biology.
Earthnet Online is the entry point for scientific-technical information on Earth Observation activities by the European Space Agency (ESA). The web portal provides a vast amount of content, grown and collected over more than a decade: Detailed technical information on Earth Observation (EO) missions, satellites and sensors, EO data products & services, online resources such as catalogues and library, a section dedicated to applications of satellite data, and access to promotional satellite imagery.
The European Polar Board (EPB) is an independent European Organization of Directors and Managers of the major European National Polar Programmes. It was established in 1995 by the European Science Foundation as a strategic advisory body on Polar Science. It is concerned with major strategic priorities in the Arctic and Antarctic and has members from national operators and research institutes in 17 countries.
The EPB’s mission is to coordinate European Arctic and Antarctic research, optimize the use of European research infrastructures, foster multilateral collaboration between European national funding agencies, national polar institutes and research organizations and represent polar issues within European research framework programmes.
EPB acts in the European context, with a bipolar vision, a scientific and managerial membership and the ability to support scientific activities and cooperation by means of coordinated polar facilities and field operations. Over 40 polar stations in the Arctic and Antarctic are managed by EPB members.
The European Polar Board has active liaison with major polar programmes outside of Europe and with international polar scientific organisations and networks and other relevant international agencies.
EPICA is a multinational European project for deep ice core drilling in Antarctica. Its main objective is to obtain full documentation of the climatic and atmospheric record archived in Antarctic ice by drilling and analyzing two ice cores and comparing these with their Greenland counterparts. Evaluation of these records will provide information about the natural climate variability and mechanisms of rapid climatic changes during the last glacial epoch. Deep drilling has taken place at two sites in Antarctica: Concordia Station, Dome C (coordinates 75°06'S; 123°21'E, 3233 m above sea level), and Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land (coordinates 75°00'S; 00°04'E, 2892 m above sea level).
Despite the fact that polar low research is a matter of interest to the scientific community for more than 30 years, polar low research is still of high interest for all nations working in the polar regions. While in its early years polar low research was mainly focussed on the European polar seas, polar MCs are now investigated over almost all oceans affected by cold air outbreaks in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and also in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). For the NH, research has been conducted in the Japan Sea, the Labrador Sea, Hudson Bay, and the Davis Street, and also for the areas of the Greenland Sea, the Norwegian Sea, and the Barents Sea. For the SH, MCs have been observed for different regions of the Antarctic by means of satellite imagery used to investigate the synoptic climatology of MCs. Regional climatological studies using higher resolution satellite data and detailed observational studies have been carried out for the areas of the Ross and Bellingshausen Sea, and also for the areas of the Bellingshausen and Weddell Sea. Recently observational and numerical model studies have been performed.
The EPPR Working Group was established under the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) in 1991 to provide a framework for future cooperation in responding to the threat of environmental emergencies. The EPPR Working Group is one of five working groups of the Arctic Council, which was established in 1996 to foster international co-operation on environmental protection and sustainable development in the Arctic.
The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europe's gateway to space. Its mission is to shape the development of Europe's space capability and ensure that investment in space continues to deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world. ESA's job is to draw up the European space programme and carry it through. ESA's programmes are designed to find out more about Earth, its immediate space environment, our Solar System and the Universe, as well as to develop satellite-based technologies and services, and to promote European industries. ESA also works closely with space organisations outside Europe.
The Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) enables the collection of Earth science data from the EOS spacecraft. As NASA's Earth science data system, ESDIS provides command and control, scheduling, data processing, and data archiving and distribution services for EOS missions. The mission operations, managed by the Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project, coordinate the communications through the Space and Ground Network facilities of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and Polar Ground stations. The staff at the mission operations facilities perform the spacecraft and instrument control as well as the data capture and initial processing of the telemetry data.
The European Science Foundation (ESF) is an association of 80 member organisations devoted to scientific research in 30 European countries. Since we were established in 1974, we have coordinated a wide range of pan-European scientific initiatives, and our flexible organisation structure means we can respond quickly to new developments. The ESF is committed to facilitating cooperation and collaboration in European science on behalf of its principal stakeholders (Member Organisations and Europe's scientific community). This cross-border activity combines both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches in the long-term development of science.
EU-PolarNet is the world’s largest consortium of expertise and infrastructure for polar research. Seventeen countries are represented by 22 of Europe’s internationally-respected multi-disciplinary research institutions. From 2015-2020, EU-PolarNet will develop and deliver a strategic framework and mechanisms to prioritise science, optimise the use of polar infrastructure, and broker new partnerships that will lead to the co-design of polar research projects that deliver tangible benefits for society. By adopting a higher degree of coordination of polar research and operations than has existed previously the consortium engages in closer cooperation with all relevant actors on an international level.
The Frederick A. Cook Society is a non-profit, educational organization which holds an annual meeting, publishes a membership newsletter three times a year, and an annual journal of professional papers and scholarly work. The Society maintains the Frederick A. Cook Collection and exhibit in Hurleyville, NY and assists writers, scholars, and individuals seeking information on the life and work of Frederick Albert Cook (1856-1940).
The Forum for Arctic Ocean Modeling and Observational Synthesis (FAMOS) is an international effort to focus on enhancing collaboration and coordination among arctic marine and sea ice modelers, theoreticians and observationalists based on a set of activities starting from generating hypotheses, to planning research included both observations and modeling, and to finalizing analyses synthesizing major results from the field studies and coordinated numerical experiments.
FARO aims to facilitate and optimise logistics and operational support for scientific research in the Arctic. The forum encourages international collaboration on information exchange, establishment of cooperation, and development of new ideas among the national logistics operators in countries with Arctic research activities.
Falklands Conservation is a charity that looks after the spectacular environment of the Falkland Islands, a very special place in the South Atlantic, renowned for its vast seabird colonies and so much more. Falklands Conservation is regulated by its Articles of Association and Memorandum of Understanding. These comply with its status as a UK company limited by guarantee and a registered, non-profit charity. Falklands Conservation is a Partner in BirdLife International, where it represents the Falkland Islands and is a member of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
Antarctica is a unique environment. It's one of the most heavily protected places on earth and all visitors are required to adhere to strict environmental management requirements. These pages provide information on how the FCO is protecting Antarctica, legislation governing the area, and how you can obtain permits for expeditions and tourism in Antarctica.
Trent University has a well-established reputation for excellence and innovation in the field of Canadian Studies and Indigenous Studies. The Canadian Studies Ph.D. and the M.A. in Canadian Studies and Indigenous Studies is embedded in that legacy, drawing on faculty from the humanities, social sciences and other interdisciplinary fields. The richness that such diversity provides fosters the interdisciplinarity that lies at the heart of the programs. Trent University prides itself on developing a collegial and collaborative atmosphere between students and faculty, something readily fostered by the Frost Centre for Canadian Studies and Indigenous Studies, which draws together scholars and students from the local, national and international community.
The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) informs the management of natural resources through research and development in fuels and combustion science, fire and landscape ecology, and integration of the physical and ecological sciences. This group was responsible for FROSTFIRE, a successful experimental burn in the boreal forest. This landscape-scale prescribed research burn in the boreal forest of interior Alaska was a success for both Forest Service Research scientists and fire managers. Planning over the previous 5 years culminated in a safe and successful burn July 8-15, 1999. Within the 2200-acre perimeter, fire mimicked natural conditions by burning 900 acres of mostly black spruce, leaving the hardwoods standing. Further information on the FROSTFIRE burn can be found at: http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/research/targeted/frostfire/index.shtml.
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FERHRI is the state institution of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET). FERHRI's responsibility zone covers Primorskiy, Khabarovskiy, Sakhalinskiy, Kuril Islands, Kamchatkskiy, Chukotskiy, Kolymskiy, Amurskiy, Irkutskiy, Buriytskiy and Chitinskiy regions, Republic of Sakha, and the Far Eastern seas. Mainly, FERHRI's research and applied activities are confined to research and development in the field of hydrometeorology and oceanography and related areas, environmental monitoring, Environmental Impact Assessment and other corresponding scientific and technical works.
The FGER is currently coordinating and managing a research project called the Juneau Icefield Research Program. The mandate of FGER is to:
- Continue glacio-climatic research and the effective monitoring of Alaska's glacier sensitivities to global climate change and the superimposed effects of global warming;
- Provide education and field training in scientific understanding and relevant methodology through a wide range of hands-on geoscience education and field work in a unique outdoor environment;
- Develop individual character and teamwork for participants in a physically demanding and intellectually stimulating natural environment;
- Continue to enlarge and enhance the cadre of young earth system scientists engaged in fieldwork and group investigation efforts in the interest of the United States;
- Stimulate interaction of international scientists in glacier and environmental research.
The Falkland Islands Association exists to assist the people of the Falkland Islands to decide their own future for themselves without being subjected to pressure direct or indirect from any quarter. It is open to everyone who supports the right of the Falkland Islanders to self-determination.
The Falkland Islands Development Corporation (FIDC) is responsible for encouraging the economic development of the Islands. The organisation works at national, business sector and individual levels. FIDC was set up in 1984 in response to the recommendations of Lord Shackleton's Report and is currently funded from its own reserves and income streams, with no core input from the Falkland Islands Government (FIG). Key policy decisions are made by the Falkland Islands Development Board, which comprises representatives of each of the key economic sectors and FIG. FIDC works closely with different economic sectors to further their interests. These activities have included employing an aquaculture specialist to explore the potential for fish farming in the Islands, appointing consultants to investigate the possibilities for expanded tourism facilities, and working with others in the Islands to add value to wool. Finally, FIDC is a key resource for individual companies, offering business development advice and providing loans and targeted grants.
Canada's Minister of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) established the Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) in 1986, as required by the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). The FJMC has the following responsibilities: (1) to assist Canada and the Inuvialuit in administering the rights and obligations related to fisheries under the IFA, (2) to assist the Minister in carrying out his responsibilities for the management of fisheries and marine mammals in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), and (3) to advise the Minister on all matters relating to Inuvialuit and ISR fisheries. The mission of the FJMC is to ensure that the renewable marine, anadromous, and freshwater resources of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region are managed and conserved for the wise use and benefit of present and future generations.
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The Finnish Meteorological Institute produces high-quality observational data and research knowledge about the atmosphere, combining its know-how into services to benefit of mankind and environment. The Finnish Meteorological Institute:
- observes the physical state of the atmosphere, its chemical composition and electromagnetic phenomena
- produces information on the past, present and future state of the atmosphere
- Conducts research of high standard in the fields of meteorology, air quality, space physics, remote sensing and geomagnetism
- carries on competitive commercial activities based on the providing of expert services both in Finland and abroad
- Takes an active part in national and international cooperation
- Actively disseminates information about matters related to the atmosphere
Argentine naval aviation agency, focused on Antarctic support. Naval agency providing logistics support to the Argentine national Antarctic programme. Operates icebreaker ARA Almirante Irizar and maintains the all-year Antarctic scientific station Orcadas (60.40'S; 44.44'W).
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FNI is an independent foundation engaged in research on international environmental, energy and resource management politics. Within this framework the institute's research is mainly grouped around six focal points:
- Global governance and sustainable development
- Marine affairs and Law of the Sea
- Biodiversity and biosafety
- Polar and Russian politics
- European energy and environmental politics
- Chinese energy and environmental politics
The FNMOC, known prior to 1995 as the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (FNOC), is a meteorological and oceanographic center located in Monterey, California. A United States Navy facility, it provides worldwide weather and oceanographic model and forecast data every six hours, which are made available to the public by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Seeks to promote general interest in the North Atlantic region by organising lectures and publications, and by distributing information among members concerning this region.
Website also available in French, Dutch, and German through the following site: http://diplomatie.belgium.be
Belgians first went to Antarctica at the end of the 19th century as part of the scientific overwintering expedition led by Adrien de Gerlache on the ship Belgica. More than 50 years later, in the context of the International Year 1958-1959, it was decided to build the King Baudouin station there. The Princess Elisabeth station, a CO2-neutral structure, signifies a resumption of the traditional Belgian presence in Antarctica. Also from a historical perspective, if one looks at the country's past activities on that continent, it is no surprise that Belgium is one of the 12 original participants in the Antarctic Treaty signed in Washington in 1959.
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The overall direction of the Fram Arctic Laboratory (FAL) is to carry out joint Norwegian-Russian research on Arctic climate change. Thematically the focus is on studies of long-term changes in the physical system including the marine system (ocean and sea ice), the atmosphere and the terrestrial system (glaciers and fresh water). Geographically the focus is on the Euro-Arctic region, with special emphasis on Svalbard and the Greenland- and Barents Seas. The collaboration will include joint research programmes implemented in Barentsburg, Ny-Alesund and Longyearbyen.
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To protect the Earth's environment and ecosystems and to help human societies to develop in harmony with nature, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the global environment and to observe and predict global change. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) (the present Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency [JAXA]) and the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (the present Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology [JAMSTEC]) established the Frontier Research System for Global Change in October 1997. The aim of the system was to implement process research (modeling) for predicting global changes. In July 2004, following the restructuring of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, the Frontier Research System for Global Change became the Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) and began research activities based on a new five-year mid-term research plan. The FRCGC aspires to become a center of excellence in global-change research, and to actively contribute to international cooperation in science and technology. It will focus on international joint research and participate in evaluation projects such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the World Climate Research Project (WCRP).
FRISP was started in 1984. It is a subcommittee of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Working Group of Glaciology. For several years the work of the FRISP parties was focused on the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf (FRIS). But meanwhile the geographical restriction to FRIS was widened and other ice shelves have been included in the investigations. FRISP started out as an European forum, but now welcomes any scientist working on ice shelves and related issues. FRISP remains a focus on glaciology, but the scope is extended to include continental shelf oceanography, meteorology, and quaternary paleoclimatology to encourage discussion between these disciplines.
The Freshwater Institute (FWI) located in Winnipeg, Manitoba is comprised of five buildings totalling 24,375 m². The Freshwater Institute is the Regional Headquarters of the Central and Arctic Region. Activities include freshwater and arctic science, science oceans initiative, fish habitat management, fisheries management, small craft harbours, corporate services, communications and regional senior management. The federal Fish Inspection program, recently transferred to the new Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), continues to operate out of the FWI.
Gateway Antarctica (GA) is the centre for Antarctic studies and research at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. GA plays a leading role in the quest for knowledge in a diverse range of national and international Antarctic research projects. This includes areas such as engineering in extreme environments, Antarctica as driver of (and responder to) climate change, connections between Antarctica and New Zealand, and human influences in and on Antarctica.
The Global Analysis, Integration and Modelling Task Force (GAIM) is a component of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The GAIM Task Force Office is located in the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire. The goal of GAIM is to advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system, using as tools both data and models. GAIM emphasizes activities designed to expand upon the development, testing, and analysis of integrative data sets and models of those aspects of the Earth system where IGBP has the scientific lead. The Task Force must analyze current models and data, assess the capability of current models and experimental programs to resolve key questions, and advance and synthesize our understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles and their links to the hydrologic cycle and to the physical-climate system as a whole. This is done both for natural systems and variability as well as in the context of anthropogenic perturbations.
The Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) is the set of individual agency data and information systems that support global change research supplemented by a minimal amount of crosscutting new infrastructure, and made interoperable by the use of standards, common approaches, technology sharing, and data policy coordination. The GCDIS user community extends from global change researchers to other researchers, policy makers, educators, private industry, and private citizens. Through the GCDIS, these users are able to learn about the existence and location of relevant data and information resources, have key holding available in useful forms, and be assured of their quality and continued availability.
The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on climate change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change-related educational resources on behalf of the various US Federal Agencies that are involved in the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP).
The World Meteorological Organization's Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) is an international mechanism for supporting all key cryospheric in-situ and remote sensing observations. To meet the needs of WMO Members and partners in delivering services to users, the media, public, decision and policy makers, GCW provides authoritative, clear, and useable data, information, and analyses on the past, current and future state of the cryosphere. GCW includes observation, monitoring, assessment, product development, prediction, and research. It provides the framework for reliable, comprehensive, sustained observing of the cryosphere through a coordinated and integrated approach on national to global scales to deliver quality-assured global and regional products and services. GCW organizes analyses and assessments of the cryosphere to support science, decision-making and environmental policy.
The Gwich'in Development Corporation (GDC) focuses on increasing revenues through local development activities occurring within the Gwich'in Settlement Region of the Yukon and Northwest Territories. The GDC also works to ensure beneficiaries of the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement are involved in training, employment and business opportunities created from these activities. Our strong and successful joint venture partnerships are the key to fulfilling these goals.
The Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges Project (GEWEX) is an integrated program of research, observations, and science activities that focuses on the atmospheric, terestrial, radiative, hydrological, coupled processes, and interactions that determine the global and regional hydrological cycle, radiation and energy transitions, and their involvement in climate change. The International GEWEX Project Office (IGPO) is the focal point for the planning and implementation of all GEWEX activities. GEWEX is the core project in the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) concerned with studying the dynamics and thermodynamics of the atmosphere, its interactions with the Earth's surface, and the effects on the global energy and water cycle.
GEUS - De Nationale Geologiske Undersøgelser for Danmark og Grønland (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland)http://www.geus.dk/geuspage-uk.htm
GEUS is an independent sector research institute under the Ministry of the Environment. It is an advisory, research and survey institute in hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry, stratigraphy, glaciology, ore geology, marine geology, mineralogy, climatology, environmental history, air photo interpretration, and geothermic energy fields in Denmark and Greenland. GEUS works in close corporation with the Geologisk Institut and Geologisk Museum, both part of University of Copenhagen.
The object of research at the GFZ is the Earth System - our planet, on which we live. We study the history of the Earth and its characteristics, as well as the processes which occur on its surface and within is interior. We also investigate the many interactions which exist between the various parts of the system - the geosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and finally the biosphere. The GFZ, which currently has 1000 employees including 350 scientists and 100 doctoral candidates, is the national research centre for Earth Sciences in Germany. With an annual budget of 76 million Euros, our staff works in all the disciplines of the Earth sciences from geodesy to reengineering, as well as in the associated natural sciences and engineering topics.
Northeastern Illinois University Earth Science undergraduate students contributed definitions to this class project, a glossary of terms relating to glaciers, in Spring 2000. As in any group project, quality varies.
The Glacier Society is a non-profit Educational Foundation dedicated to the restoration and operation of the USS/USCGC Glacier in honor of all who served in the exploration of the North and South Poles. In addition to her record-breaking 39 Arctic and Antarctic deployments, she is one of only a few United States ships to serve under the colors of both the US Navy and the US Coast Guard. Once Glacier has been restored, she will be the ideal scientific /oceanographic platform on which to conduct various levels of environmental research. She will be involved with today's major polar research centers, studying oceanographic diversity and biological samples from polar waters.
Global warming will have a large impact on glaciers in the Arctic region. Changes in the extent of glaciers will affect sea level, and may lead to substantial changes in sediment and fresh water supplies to embayments and fjords. Previous attempts to estimate the runoff of all glaciers in the Arctic for a set of climate-change scenarios used a simple approach. Changes in the surface mass balance were calculated without dealing with the fact that glacier geometries will change. Estimations also assumed that the rate of iceberg production at calving fronts would not change. To arrive at more accurate predictions, GLACIODYN aims to study the dynamics of Arctic glaciers and develop new tools to deal with this dynamic response.
GLOBEC considered global change in a broad sense, encompassing the gradual processes of climate change and its impacts on marine systems, as well as those shorter-term changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures such as population growth in coastal areas, increased pollution, overfishing, changing fishing practices and changing human use of the seas. Project has now ended and final reports are available.
GOOS is a permanent global system for observations, modelling and analysis of marine and ocean variables to support operational ocean services worldwide. GOOS provides accurate descriptions of the present state of the oceans, including living resources, continuous forecasts of the future conditions of the sea, and the basis for forecasts of climate change.
The tasks of the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources are as follows: to obtain the scientific basis for a sustainable exploitation of the nature resources in and around Greenland, as well as for protecting the environment and the biological diversity; to provide consulting to the Government of Greenland within the Institute's fields of work, and; to publish the results of its research.
GRID-Arendal is a collaborating centre of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Our mission is to create environmental knowledge enabling positive change. This is achieved by organizing and transforming available environmental data into credible, science-based information products, delivered through innovative communication tools and capacity-building services targeting relevant stakeholders. We are based in Arendal, Norway and have offices in Ottawa, Canada and Stockholm, Sweden.
GRISO is an international, open network of scientists interested in working together to address the large, complex questions associated with recent changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet and the related oceanic and atmospheric changes around Greenland. The GRISO network evolved from a US CLIVAR working group (GRISO WG), founded in 2011 and active until 2014. GRISO is also connected to SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) – a system-scale, interdisciplinary research program that seeks to connect scientists working on Arctic change with stakeholders and decision makers. The Land-ice Action Team, within SEARCH, will, in part, support the activities of the GRISO Network.
The Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board (GRRB) was established under the guidance of the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement to be the main instrument of wildlife, fish and forest management in the Gwich'in Settlement Area, western Canadian Arctic. The GRRB's mission is to conserve and manage renewable resources within the Gwich'in Settlement Area in a sustainable manner to meet the needs of the public today and in the future.
Established in 1888, The Geological Society of America provides access to elements that are essential to the professional growth of earth scientists at all levels of expertise and from all sectors: academic, government, business, and industry. The Geological Society's growing membership unites thousands of earth scientists from every corner of the globe in a common purpose - to study the mysteries of our planet and share scientific findings.
Founded by the Gwich'in of Canada's Northwest Territories in response to concerns about the erosion of Gwich'in culture and language. The Institute has a mandate to document, preserve and promote the practice of Gwich'in culture, language, traditional knowledge and values. The research programme revolves around the study of place-names and traditional land-use, ethno-botany, ethno-archaeology, genealogy, language and the replication of traditional material culture (e.g. caribou skin clothing from the late 19th C.). The education programme includes an annual Gwich'in Science Camp, a 10-day on-the-land traditional knowledge and western science camp for senior high-school students. GSCI works with the four communities of Aklavik, Fort McPherson, Inuvik, and Tsiigehtchic which fall within the Gwich'in Settlement Area (GSA), established by the land claim agreement.
Established in 1992, the Gwich'in Tribal Council (GTC) is an Aboriginal organization that represents Gwich'in Participants in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, and across Canada. The objectives of the GTC are to:
- protect and preserve the rights, interest and benefits of the Gwich'in in reference to their use, ownership and management of lands, waters, and resources in the Gwich'in Settlement Area;
- retain, preserve and enhance the traditional and cultural values, customs and language of the Gwich'in in a changing society;
- develop and promote economic, social, educational and cultural programs that will enable the Gwich'in to become self-sufficient and full participating members in a global society;
- uphold the rights, interest and benefits of the Gwich'in in reference to the Constitution Act, Treaty 11 and the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement; and
- receive, preserve and enhance the capital and the lands and other benefits transferred to the Gwich'in pursuant to the Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement signed on April 22, 1992.
National agency for surveying, mapping, and researching surface deposits, bedrock, and mineral resources of Finland. The GTK library maintains two bibliographic databases: FINGEO, listing publications relating to Finnish geology from 1971 onwards, and RAPGEO, listing unpublished reports held in the archives. GTK also oversees a geological museum.
At the National level, a number of national committees for IPY 2007-2008 have been formed to promote the Polar Year, to help coordinate each countries contributions to IPY, and to interact with national funding agencies.
HARC was created in 1997 as a component of the Arctic System Science Program (ARCSS) of the National Science Foundation. Within ARCSS, the aim of HARC is to better understand the role of humans in the functioning of and interactions among the various physical, biological, and social components of the arctic system and the significance of changes in the arctic system for people in the Arctic and across the globe.
The Humanities and Social Sciences Expert Group SCAR Social Sciences Action Group[HASSEG] was formed as an Action Group under the umbrella of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in 2010 by a group of international scholars with the aim of fostering new approaches to Antarctic research grounded in the humanities and social sciences.
The High North Alliance was founded in 1991 as a result of cooperation by the Lofoten Regional Council and the Norwegian Whalers' Union. The organization was established in response to campaigns calling for a total ban on all commercial whaling and sealing, and the even more radical ones calling for a total ban on the killing of marine mammals for any reason whatsoever. The task of the High North Alliance is to provide alternative information to these campaigns. The organization's objective is to protect the rights of whalers, sealers, and fishermen to harvest renewable resources in accordance with the principle of sustainable management. The High North Alliance also works towards consolidating the knowledge and skills necessary for the ecologically sound management of marine mammal resources.
Scientific branch of Direccion Nacional del Antártico and national member of SCAR. In addition to its own research programmes, provides logistical support to scientists from other organizations and maintains the all-year scientific station Teniente Jubany (62.14'S; 58.40'W). Also a national Antarctic mapping centre.
IAATO is a member organization founded in 1991 to advocate, promote and practice safe and environmentally responsible private-sector travel to the Antarctic.IAATO creates tourism guidelines for members and collects data on tourism activities in the Antarctic. Currently, more than 100 Antarctica-bound outfitters are voluntary members of IAATO.
The Institute of Arctic Biology was founded in 1963 by the Board of Regents of the University of Alaska with Laurence Irving, a pioneer in the field of comparative physiology, as the founding director. IAB provides and supports platforms for research in programs from ecology and ecosystems to molecular biology and genetics, including field stations, small- and large-animal facilities, and core laboratories for geographic information systems and DNA sequencing.
The participants of the IABP work together to maintain a network of drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational requirements and research purposes, including support to the World Climate Research Programme and the World Weather Watch Programme.
The Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science (IAC) is part of the Department of Environmental Sciences (D-UWIS) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich). IAC research involves the study of weather phenomena, atmospheric composition and the climate system (including links to the cryosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere).
The objectives of the IACS are:
- to promote studies of cryospheric subsystems of the Earth solar systems
- to encourage research in the above subjects by members of the cryospheric community, national and international institutions and programmes, and individual countries through collaboration and international co-ordination
- to provide an opportunity on an international basis for discussion and publication of the results of the above research
- to promote education and public awareness on the cryosphere
- to facilitate the standardisation of measurement or collection of data on cryospheric systems and of the analysis, archiving and publication of such data.
IAHS promotes the study of all aspects of hydrology through discussion, comparison, and publication of research results, and through the initiation of research that requires international cooperation. IAHS Press publishes the bi-monthly Hydrological Sciences Journal, the Red Book Series that includes proceedings of between eight and 12 symposia per year, and other more specialised publications. IAHS maintains strong connections with the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO and the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme of the World Meteorological Organisation.
The primary goal of the international Antarctic Zone (iAnZone) program is to advance our quantitative knowledge and modeling capability of the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the ocean and its sea ice cover, with emphasis on climate-relevant fluxes which couple the Antarctic Zone to the atmosphere and to the Global Ocean.
In order to enhance our understanding of the Arctic and climate change, a state-of-the-art observation system is required. iAOOS-Norway is the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board's (AOSB) major program, which was implemented during the IPY by investigators from approximately twenty countries. It is a joint AOSB-CliC initiative for the IPY. iAOOS intends to observe the Arctic Ocean to the seabed using satellites, and to observe the changes imposed on the Arctic from subarctic seas.
The International Arctic Research Center [IARC] serves as a focal point for integrating/synthesizing arctic research efforts in terms of climate change, and communicates the results to the global climate research community. Our core research group interacts with a larger number of scientists from many parts of the world, enabling climate change research to truly be an international effort.
The U.S. Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) consists of fifteen-plus agencies, departments, and offices across the Federal government. Established by Congress through the Arctic Research and Policy Act, IARPC is chaired by the National Science Foundation.
IASC's main aim is to initiate, develop, and coordinate leading edge scientific activity in the Arctic region and on the role of the Arctic in the Earth system. It also provides objective and independent scientific advice to the Arctic Council and other organizations on issues of science affecting the management of the Arctic region. IASC was established in 1990, began operations in 1991, and today comprises 19 member countries. The IASC member organizations are national science organizations covering all fields of Arctic research. Each national member organization has a mechanism to provide ongoing contact between its IASC council member and its Arctic science community.
The main mission of the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) is coordination of atmospheric data collection at existing and newly established intensive Arctic atmospheric observatories. This effort supports the International Polar Year but is intended to establish a continuing network consortium into the foreseeable future. Data of interest to the IASOA consortium include measurements of standard meteorology, greenhouse gases, atmospheric radiation, clouds, pollutants, chemistry, aerosols, and surface energy balances.
A full understanding of all aspects of the functioning of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is vital to Australia and the World. IASOS provides undergraduate, honours, and postgraduate-level training in all areas pertaining to the southern polar regions.
The IASSA aims to promote and stimulate international cooperation and to increase the participation of social scientists in national and international Arctic research. IASSA is governed by an elected eight-member Council and a General Assembly consisting of all members having paid their membership. There is a General Assembly every three years during the International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences (ICASS) organized by IASSA. Between the General Assemblies IASSA is run by a Secretariat.
The Commission is charged with promoting research and interest in the complex interactions of magmas and ice in all its forms (snow, firn, ice and meltwater), on Earth and other planets. In general such interactions are referred to as glaciovolcanism. This website is intended to be the first port of call for anybody with an interest in the subject.
The goal of this initiative is to develop a digital data base that contains all available bathymetric data north of 64 degrees North, for use by mapmakers, researchers, and others whose work requires a detailed and accurate knowledge of the depth and the shape of the Arctic seabed.
The objective of the IOC regional ocean mapping program and SCAR Geosciences Expert Group on IBCSO is to gain better knowledge of the sea floor topography in the Southern Ocean. Initiated by an ad-hoc working group in 2003, the IBCSO Group started in late 2006. For the preparation of the first International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean the IBCSO group collects and compiles bathymetric data/grids/maps from hydrographic offices, scientific institutions and data centers.
The International Biological Program was an effort between 1964 and 1974 to coordinate large-scale ecological and environmental studies. The main results of the IBP were five biome studies, the largest of which were the Grassland Biome project and the Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome project.
ICARP brings together senior and young scholars, policy experts, Arctic indigenous and other residents, science and land managers as well as funding agencies to discuss and extend the draft science plans taking special note of the problems, priorities and concerns of those who live in or near the Arctic. The goal is to prepare Arctic research plans to guide international cooperation.
Different groups working at the University of Innsbruck cover a wide field of research related to snow, ice and climate. Worldwide changes of glaciers and climate in different time scales as well as short term energy, ice, and water balances are investigated.
The backbone of the ICEMON service system is the existing institutions that provide operational oceanography services in high latitudes. Research and development work to support and upgrade the services will be conducted to build the capacity to retrieve quantitative information from new satellite data, improve modeling and forecasting skills, and for utilization of state-of-the-art information technologies, communication and end user systems.
Under the leadership of the Climate and the Cryosphere (CliC) Program's Arctic Sea Ice Working Group, a workshop was convened in Tromsø, Norway in January 2009 to discuss different approaches to better coordinate Arctic sea-ice field research. This website (in its first, highly preliminary version) is based on recommendations and input provided by the more than 30 participants from 13 nations on how to help improve coordinated planning for field-based sea-ice research.
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) coordinates and promotes research on oceanography, the marine environment, the marine ecosystem, and on living marine resources in the North Atlantic. Members of the ICES community now include all coastal states bordering the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with affiliate members in the Mediterranean Sea and southern hemisphere.
ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) is the benchmark Earth Observing System mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.
ICESTAR aims to understand the geospace environment and its dynamic response to external forcing from solar activity. To achieve this, a distributed Virtual Arctic and Antarctic Geospace Observatories Network has been planned. Various mechanisms that control bi-polar regional differences and commonalities in electrodynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system and aeronomy of the upper atmosphere over the Arctic and Antarctic will be identified and quantified.
The International Commission on Polar Meteorology (ICPM) is a focus for research into the meteorology and climatology of the Arctic and Antarctic. It is one of the ten commissions of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS), which is in turn part of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).
The International Council for Science (ICSU), formerly called the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science. Its members are national scientific bodies, and international scientific unions, including the International Mathematical Union, the International Astronomical Union and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
Ice Core Young Scientists (ICYS) is an informal, international network of early career scientists dedicated to the study of polar and alpine ice cores and ice core-related sciences. Our purpose is to foster personal connections among young scientists from around the world, in order to build a supportive ice core science community and to inspire future collaborations.
Receiving our mandate from the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, IDC promotes meaningful participation of the Inuvialuit in the Western Arctic, circumpolar and national economies by building and protecting a diversified asset base to generate sustainable financial returns. A builder of futures, IDC has been successful in attaining sustainable growth and a return on equity consistent with industry benchmarks. In achieving our revenues and profit, we ensure that throughout our group of companies, the growth actions of today protect the assets of the Inuvialuit for future generations.
The vision of IGBP is to provide scientific knowledge to improve the sustainability of the living Earth. IGBP studies the interactions between biological, chemical and physical processes and interactions with human systems and collaborates with other programmes to develop and impart the understanding necessary to respond to global change.
The Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) seeks to provide a comprehensive framework to harmonize the common interests of the major space-based and in-situ systems for global observation of the Earth. It is being developed as an over-arching strategy for conducting observations relating to climate and atmosphere, oceans and coasts, the land surface and the Earth's interior.
The International Glaciological Society was founded in 1936 to provide a focus for individuals interested in practical and scientific aspects of snow and ice.
The International Geographical Union was established in Brussels in 1922. The International Geographical Union adheres to the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and recognizes them as co-ordinating bodies for the international organization of science.
IHDP's mission is to generate scientific knowledge on coupled human-environment systems, achieve comprehensive understanding of global environmental change processes and their consequences for sustainable development, and make contributions to explore the anthropogenic drivers of global environmental change, the impact of such change on human welfare, and societal responses to mitigate and adapt to global environmental change.
The International Ice Charting Working Group (IICWG) was formed in October 1999 to promote cooperation between the world's ice centers on all matters concerning sea ice and icebergs
The goal of the Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA) is to provide Inuvialuit beneficiaries, the public, and stakeholders with a gateway to the application process for the use of Inuvialuit lands, and access to other pertinent information on ILA, Inuvialuit lands, and resources.
ILTS was founded in 1941 as the first research institute affiliated with Hokkaido University to promote interdisciplinary studies on various natural phenomena occurring in the cryosphere. ILTS owes its establishment to the achievements of Dr. Ukichro Nakaya, who was the first in the world to create artificial snow crystals. ILTS is now composed of 4 research sections: Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Cryospheric Science, Basic Cryosphere, and Boreal Environmental Sciences, as well as the Pan-Okhotsk Research Center.
The IMAGES community is composed of scientists from more than 50 institutions in 26 countries. Scientists from each country are represented by a "national representative" (and his substitute). The national representatives coordinate activities of their country's scientists within the IMAGES project. They deliver annual activity reports which are published at the IMAGES website.
The study of climate change and possible implications for mankind is one field in which fundamental knowledge of the oceans and the atmosphere is applied. The mission of the IMAU is to contribute to the basic science of the oceans, atmosphere and cryosphere. To achieve this we try to maintain an open and stimulating research environment in which students and staff are inspired to give their best.
The Innu Nation is the organization that formally represents the Innu of Labrador, approximately 2200 persons, most of whom live in the two Innu communities of Sheshatshiu and Natuashish. In order to protect their interests, their land and their rights from outside forces the Innu people first organized themselves in 1976 under the Naskapi Montagnais Innu Association (NMIA). In 1990, the NMIA changed its name to the Innu Nation. Today the Innu Nation forms the governing body of the Labrador Innu. The Innu Nation's mandate is to speak as one voice to protect the interests of the Innu people and to oversee all its political and business affairs. The Innu Nation is involved in on-going land claim and self-governance negociations with the Federal and provincial governments. As of 2006, the Innu of Labrador have been formally recognized under The Indian Act of Canada.
The Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), based in Boulder Colorado, strives for excellence in research, education, and outreach related to Earth System Science and Global Change in high-latitude, alpine, and other environments.
The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO), established in 1960 as a body with functional autonomy within UNESCO, is the only competent organization for marine science within the UN system. The purpose of the Commission is to promote international cooperation and to coordinate programmes in research, services and capacity-building, in order to learn more about the nature and resources of the ocean and coastal areas and to apply that knowledge for the improvement of management, sustainable development, the protection of the marine environment, and the decision-making processes of its Member States. In addition, IOC is recognized through the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) as the competent international organization in the fields of Marine Scientific Research (Part XIII) and Transfer of Marine Technology (Part XIV).
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international scientific research program supported by 24 countries. IODP advances scientific understanding of the Earth by monitoring, drilling, sampling, and analyzing subseafloor environments.
the Institute of Ocean Sciences (IOS) is one of Canada’s largest marine institutes. An important link in Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s nationwide chain of nine major scientific facilities, the institute is the centre for research on coastal waters of BC, the Northeastern Pacific Ocean, the western Canadian Arctic and navigable fresh waters east to the Alberta border. The Institute of Ocean Sciences has earned international recognition for its work in ocean sciences. Its more than 250 scientists and researchers are dedicated to providing up-to-date information on all elements of oceanography, including fisheries and ocean research, environmental science and hydrography. They also work closely with staff at other Fisheries and Oceans’ labs in BC.
The International Permafrost Association, founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost.
The Participants of the WCRP/SCAR International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) work together to maintain a network of drifting buoys in the Southern Ocean, in particular over sea ice, to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational requirements and research purposes. IPAB is a sister program of the International Arctic Buoy Program IABP.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts.
The International Polar Foundation communicates and educates on polar science and polar research as a way to understand key environmental and climate mechanisms.
IPICS is supported by PAGES (Past Global Changes), SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research) and IACS (International Association of Cryospheric Sciences), although it is not a formal project under any of these organizations.
IPIECA is the global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues. IPIECA was formed in 1974 following the launch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). IPIECA is the only global association involving both the upstream and downstream oil and gas industry on environmental and social issues.
The Arctic Council Indigenous Peoples' Secretariat is a support Secretariat for the international indigenous peoples' organisations that are permanent participants in the Arctic Council.
The International Polar Year is a large scientific programme focused on the Arctic and the Antarctic from March 2007 to March 2009. The International Polar Year (or IPY) is a collaborative, international effort researching the polar regions.
The International Polar Year Data and Information Service (IPYDIS) is a global partnership of data centers, archives, and networks working to ensure proper stewardship of IPY and related data.
The International Polar Year Joint Committee was appointed by the International Council for Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) until the end of 2009. The Joint Committee was responsible for scientific planning, coordination, guidance and oversight of the IPY. In performing its functions, it was supported by an International Programme Office. It worked closely with all relevant organizations and National IPY Committees/contact persons.
IRC was established with the overall responsibility of managing the affairs of the Settlement as outlined in the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). Its mandate is to continually improve the economic, social and cultural well-being of the Inuvialuit through implementation of the IFA and by all other available means. Through a democratic process, Inuvialuit beneficiaries directly control IRC and its subsidiaries. Each Inuvialuit community - Aklavik, Inuvik, Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, Tuktoyaktuk and Ulukhaktok - has a community corporation (CC) with elected directors. The directors of the six community corporations elect the Chair/Chief Executive Officer of IRC. The Chairs of each CC, together with the Chair of IRC, form the IRC Board of Directors.
We use a science-based approach to enhance society's capability to understand, anticipate and manage the impacts of climate in order to improve human welfare and the environment, especially in developing countries.
The Institute is established to carry on activities of research, promotion and technology transfer in the following disciplines: meteorology and its applications, climate change and predictability, atmospheric structure and composition, and observations of the planet Earth.
ISAC was initiated in 2003 by the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) and the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board (AOSB) following the SEARCH Open Science Meeting in Seattle in October 2003. That conference brought together over 440 researchers from around the world to present and discuss progress in research on rapid environmental change in the Arctic. At an international implementation meeting participants requested that IASC and AOSB form the International Study of Arctic Change Interim Science Planning Group (ISPG) and in January 2005 the ISPG published the ISAC Science Overview Document. This formed the basis for the further development of the ISAC Science Program.
The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) to collect weather satellite radiance measurements and to analyze them to infer the global distribution of clouds, their properties, and their diurnal, seasonal and interannual variations. The resulting datasets and analysis products are being used to study the role of clouds in climate , both their effects on radiative energy exchanges and their role in the global water cycle.
The International Science Initiative in the Russian Arctic, ISIRA, is a Russian and international cooperative initiative to assist Russian Arctic science and sustainable development in the Russian Arctic.
ISLSCP was established in 1983 under the United Nation's Environmental Programme to promote the use of satellite data for the global land-surface data sets needed for climate studies. Since then, ISLSCP has played a key role in addressing land-surface processes, developing climate models, experiment design and implementation, and data set development.
In 1993 the Global Change in Antarctica (GLOCHANT) Group of Specialists (GoS), a SCAR initiative, established a task group on the "Antarctic ice sheet mass balance and sea-level" contributions (ISMASS) to address the requirements for a coordinated international approach to resolving the role of the Antarctic ice sheet in sea-level change. The group was established under the chairmanship of Professor Charles Bentley and ISMASS held their first meeting at Cambridge in conjunction with the Fifth International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciology (VISAG), in 1993. With the re-organisation of SCAR and the dissolution of GLOCHANT, ISMASS has now become an Expert Group of the SCAR Physical Sciences Standing Scientific Group (SSG).
The ISOPE, the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, was granted on September 15, 1989 the status of tax-exempt, non-profit scientific and educational organization under Code 501(c)(3) from the United States Internal Revenue Code. The ISOPE opened its offices initially in the USA, the UK and Norway. The Society membership is open equally to all actively interested in promoting engineering and scientific progress in the fields of offshore and polar engineering.
The International Tundra Experiment is a scientific network of experiments focusing on the impact of climate change on selected plant species in tundra and alpine vegetation.
The International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) contains an overview of existing and new courses on permafrost and periglacial geomorphology within science and engineering disciplines, 2007 to 2009. It is generously provided by the International Permafrost Association.
The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) is the international organization dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change.
The society is focused on the 23-foot whaler James Caird, preserved in the North Cloister, Dulwich College, in which Shackleton and five companions made their epic voyage from Elephant Island to South Georgia in 1916. The James Caird Society also runs an educational programme involving lectures, articles in the press, and radio and television programmes.
On April 1, 2004, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) was inaugurated as an independent administrative institution once it was re-organized from its former organization, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. The main objective of JAMSTEC is to contribute to the advancement of academic research in addition to the improvement of marine science and technology. This is done by conducting fundamental research and development on the marine environment, and cooperative academic research related to the ocean for the benefit of peace and human welfare.
This Committee is a joint committee of Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP). Its purpose is to advise SCAR and COMNAP on the management of Antarctic data. One of its key roles is to advise on the development of the Antarctic Data Management System, including the recruitment of National Antarctic Data Centres (NADCs) and the encouragement of scientists to submit metadata to NADCs. The Committee is also examining national approaches to addressing freedom of access to scientific information.
The JCG is responsible for the maintenance of public order, oil pollution response, search and rescue, hydrographic surveys, oceanographic observation, and the provision of navigational charts, publications and information that are required to ensure navigational safety.
JCOMM, the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, is an intergovernmental body of technical experts that provides a mechanism for international coordination of oceanographic and marine meteorological observing and data management and services, combining the expertise, technologies and capacity building capabilities of the meteorological and oceanographic communities. The creation of this Joint Technical Commission results from a general recognition that worldwide improvements in coordination and efficiency may be achieved by combining the expertise and technological capabilities of the World Meteorological Organization and UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.
The U.S. launched the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in the late 1980s to study the ocean carbon cycle. An ambitious goal was set: to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. As JGOFS studied ocean biogeochemistry, it became evident that simple views of carbon uptake and transport were severely limited, and a new "wave" of ocean science was born. In 1989, JGOFS became a core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). JGOFS has two primary goals:
- To determine and understand on a global scale the processes controlling the time-varying fluxes of carbon and associated biogenic elements in the ocean and to evaluate the related exchanges with the atmosphere, sea floor and continental boundaries; and
- To develop a capability to predict, on a global scale, the response of oceanic biogeochemical processes to anthropogenic perturbations, in particular those related to climate change.
The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. The international program, which has more than 30 participating nations, began three years later under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research.
As part of Japan's government, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) implements its services with the following ultimate goals in compliance with the Act for Establishment of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and the Meteorological Service Act:
- Prevention and mitigation of natural disasters,
- Safety of transportation,
- Development and prosperity of industry, and
- Improvement of public welfare.
The Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC) was established by the Hydrographic Department of the Maritime Safety Agency in 1965, in accordance with the resolution adopted by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO in 1961, as well as the reports of the Council for Marine Scientific Technology in 1963 and 1964. Since its establishment JODC has been fulfilling a role as a data bank of marine data in Japan, as well as acquiring marine data from various marine research institutes and organizations and providing users with these data.
The Joint Office for Science Support (JOSS) is housed within the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. JOSS headquarters is located in Boulder, CO. The Office receives funding from the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as support from other U.S. agencies, private sources, and international organizations. During a typical year, JOSS facilitates over 475 scientific events. Event size has ranged from 12 to 1,200 participants. These international and domestic gatherings are critical to scientists and governmental agencies because they represent initial planning stages of future research, a gathering and sharing of information and opinions within the community and government, and/or presentations of research data or future predictions to various interested parties.
In total, JPL has 20 spacecraft and nine instruments conducting active missions. All of these are important parts of NASA's program of exploration of the Earth, the solar system and the universe beyond. These ventures would not be possible without NASA's Deep Space Network managed by JPL. This international network of antenna complexes on several continents serves as the communication gateway between distant spacecraft and the Earth-based teams that guide them. While carrying out these exploration missions, JPL also conducts a number of space technology demonstrations in support of national security and develops technologies for use on Earth in fields from public safety to medicine, capitalizing on NASA's investment in space technology.
The Japan Whaling Association (JWA) was established in December 1959 as a nonprofit foundation. After the moratorium on commercial whaling adopted by the International Whaling Commission came into effect, the JWA disbanded in July 1988, and re-formed in October 1988 as a private organization with the aim of resuming whaling. We endeavor for the revival and sound development of the whaling industry by collecting, studying, and clarifying information on whaling, and by planning and implementing measures to resume whaling.