The society is focused on the 23-foot whaler James Caird, preserved in the North Cloister, Dulwich College, in which Shackleton and five companions made their epic voyage from Elephant Island to South Georgia in 1916. The James Caird Society also runs an educational programme involving lectures, articles in the press, and radio and television programmes.
On April 1, 2004, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) was inaugurated as an independent administrative institution once it was re-organized from its former organization, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. The main objective of JAMSTEC is to contribute to the advancement of academic research in addition to the improvement of marine science and technology. This is done by conducting fundamental research and development on the marine environment, and cooperative academic research related to the ocean for the benefit of peace and human welfare.
This Committee is a joint committee of Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP). Its purpose is to advise SCAR and COMNAP on the management of Antarctic data. One of its key roles is to advise on the development of the Antarctic Data Management System, including the recruitment of National Antarctic Data Centres (NADCs) and the encouragement of scientists to submit metadata to NADCs. The Committee is also examining national approaches to addressing freedom of access to scientific information.
The JCG is responsible for the maintenance of public order, oil pollution response, search and rescue, hydrographic surveys, oceanographic observation, and the provision of navigational charts, publications and information that are required to ensure navigational safety.
JCOMM, the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, is an intergovernmental body of technical experts that provides a mechanism for international coordination of oceanographic and marine meteorological observing and data management and services, combining the expertise, technologies and capacity building capabilities of the meteorological and oceanographic communities. The creation of this Joint Technical Commission results from a general recognition that worldwide improvements in coordination and efficiency may be achieved by combining the expertise and technological capabilities of the World Meteorological Organization and UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.
The U.S. launched the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in the late 1980s to study the ocean carbon cycle. An ambitious goal was set: to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. As JGOFS studied ocean biogeochemistry, it became evident that simple views of carbon uptake and transport were severely limited, and a new "wave" of ocean science was born. In 1989, JGOFS became a core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). JGOFS has two primary goals:
- To determine and understand on a global scale the processes controlling the time-varying fluxes of carbon and associated biogenic elements in the ocean and to evaluate the related exchanges with the atmosphere, sea floor and continental boundaries; and
- To develop a capability to predict, on a global scale, the response of oceanic biogeochemical processes to anthropogenic perturbations, in particular those related to climate change.
The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. The international program, which has more than 30 participating nations, began three years later under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research.
As part of Japan's government, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) implements its services with the following ultimate goals in compliance with the Act for Establishment of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and the Meteorological Service Act:
- Prevention and mitigation of natural disasters,
- Safety of transportation,
- Development and prosperity of industry, and
- Improvement of public welfare.
The Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC) was established by the Hydrographic Department of the Maritime Safety Agency in 1965, in accordance with the resolution adopted by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO in 1961, as well as the reports of the Council for Marine Scientific Technology in 1963 and 1964. Since its establishment JODC has been fulfilling a role as a data bank of marine data in Japan, as well as acquiring marine data from various marine research institutes and organizations and providing users with these data.
The Joint Office for Science Support (JOSS) is housed within the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. JOSS headquarters is located in Boulder, CO. The Office receives funding from the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as support from other U.S. agencies, private sources, and international organizations. During a typical year, JOSS facilitates over 475 scientific events. Event size has ranged from 12 to 1,200 participants. These international and domestic gatherings are critical to scientists and governmental agencies because they represent initial planning stages of future research, a gathering and sharing of information and opinions within the community and government, and/or presentations of research data or future predictions to various interested parties.
In total, JPL has 20 spacecraft and nine instruments conducting active missions. All of these are important parts of NASA's program of exploration of the Earth, the solar system and the universe beyond. These ventures would not be possible without NASA's Deep Space Network managed by JPL. This international network of antenna complexes on several continents serves as the communication gateway between distant spacecraft and the Earth-based teams that guide them. While carrying out these exploration missions, JPL also conducts a number of space technology demonstrations in support of national security and develops technologies for use on Earth in fields from public safety to medicine, capitalizing on NASA's investment in space technology.
The Japan Whaling Association (JWA) was established in December 1959 as a nonprofit foundation. After the moratorium on commercial whaling adopted by the International Whaling Commission came into effect, the JWA disbanded in July 1988, and re-formed in October 1988 as a private organization with the aim of resuming whaling. We endeavor for the revival and sound development of the whaling industry by collecting, studying, and clarifying information on whaling, and by planning and implementing measures to resume whaling.