The aircraft-based experiment KABEG'97 was performed in April/May 1997. The experimental investigations comprised the katabatic wind system over Greenland and measurements of boundary layer fronts (BLFs) over Davis Strait. During the experiment, surface stations were installed at five positions on the ice sheet and in the tundra. The GPS navigated aircraft was instrumented with the turbulence measuring device "METEOPOD", allowing high-resolution measurements and the determination of turbulent momentum, sensible, and latent heat fluxes. In addition, downward and upward solar and terrestrial radiation and surface temperature were measured. A total of 13 flights were performed, three being BLF flights.
The Kodiak Area Native Association (KANA) was formed in 1966 as a non-profit corporation providing health and social services for the Alaska Natives of the Koniag region. The KANA service area includes the City of Kodiak and six villages: Akhiok, Karluk, Old Harbor, Ouzinkie, Port Lions, and Larsen Bay. The Mission of this organization is to promote pride and self determination on the part of the sovereign and indigenous people of the Kodiak Island area in their cultural heritage and traditions: to preserve and promote their language, customs, folklore and arts; to promote the educational, health, physical, and economic community; to prevent and overcome racial prejudice and its inequities; and to restore effective self-government, reminding those who govern and those who are governed by their mutual and joint responsibilities.
Since 1916 the Norwegian public corporation Kings Bay AS has owned and run the world's northernmost settlement named Ny-Ålesund. In 1998 Kings Bay Kull Company changed its name to Kings Bay AS and still owns and runs the research station on a full year basis. In addition, the state owned company owns the entire Brøgger peninsula and most of the area around the Kongsfjord. The company's mission statement declares that Kings Bay shall "provide services and promote research and scientific activities, and strive to develop Ny-Ålesund as an international arctic scientific research station".
Website available in
Kilpisjärvi Biological Station is situated in the mountain birch forest zone near the 70th parallel (69°03'N; 20°50'E) in northwestern Finland. The station belongs to the Faculty of Biosciences at the University of Helsinki.
Koniag Development Corporation (KDC) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Koniag, Inc., one of 13 regional Alaska Native corporations established under the terms of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). KDC operates as Koniag's business arm, invests in and partners with companies who demonstrate a high potential for growth and return, and manages most of its business operations and real estate holdings.
NSF initiated the KDI Initiative in 1998. Its purpose is to "to span the scientific and engineering communities . . . to generate, model, and represent more complex and cross-disciplinary scientific data from new sources and at enormously varying scales." Its goal is to support research that would model and make use of complex and cross-disciplinary scientific data. The research would analyze living and engineered systems in new ways. It would also explore the cognitive, ethical, educational, legal, and social implications of new types of learning, knowledge, and interactivity.
Website available in
English: http://www.lrz.de/~a2901ad/webserver/webdata/english/cfgstart.html (limited)
German: http://www.lrz.de/~a2901ad/webserver/webdata/ (full)
The Commission for Glaciology of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, BAdW) in Munich investigates the connection between climate, glacier behaviour, and water balance. This work is based on the following disciplines: meteorology, climatology, earth sciences, geodesy, cartography, hydrology, and glaciology. This research provides valuable information for water management, hydro-power production, and tourism. It also allows the verification of climatic trends and an estimation of climate impact. KFG projects are centred in the Alps, Central Asia, Himalayas, and Antarctica, among other regions.
Website available in
The activities of the KGF have concentrated on the topics of glaciology, seismology and gravimetry, focussing on the Austrian Glacier Inventory, the participation in international projects on deep reflection seismic sounding of the Alps, and gravity measurements in Austria. Another important contribution with different applications in research and field work will be the nearly finished Gravity Map of Austria.
The objectives of the Kitikmeot Inuit Association (KIA) under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA) are to defend, preserve, and promote social, cultural, political, and economic benefits to Inuit of the Kitikmeot Region. Under the direction, control and accountability of the KIA, both the Kitikmeot Corporation (KC) and the Kitikmeot Economic Development Commission (KEDC) have been delegated the responsibility of promoting economic development in the region.
The KIA mission is to represent, in a fair and democratic manner, Inuit of the Kivalliq Region in the development, protection, administration and advancement of their rights and benefits as an aboriginal people; as well as to promote their economic, social, political and cultural well being through succeeding generations. Goals of the KIA include: preserving Inuit heritage, culture and language; managing Inuit owned lands in the region and providing information to and consulting with land claims beneficiaries on land use; protecting Arctic Wildlife and the environment, thereby preserving traditional uses for current and future generations.
Founded in 1991, the Institute has 9 laboratories and conducts research on: the flora and fauna of shelf ecosystems; aquatic and terrestrial resource management; the impact of geological activity on the environment; structures, functions, dynamics, and productivity of land and marine ecosystems; elaboration of the scientific basis for rational nature utilization in the northwest Pacific region; elaboration of methods for ecological and economic estimations of the impact of anthropogenic activities on the environment.
The Kongsfjorden International Research Base (KIRB) is located in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. Ny-Ålesund (79°N) is an international base for research in all sciences involving the arctic marine, terrestrial and atmospheric environments. The main activities are related to climate research and environmental monitoring. Facilities at KIRB include the following; national research stations, atmospheric observatory, radiation observatories, clean air observatories, Kings Bay Marine Laboratory, Space Geodetic Observatory, and a rocket launch facility.
An IPY service office has been established in Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland. Kangerlussuaq is Greenland's main international and domestic traffic hub and the gateway to the Ice Sheet. The office is located in KISS, the researchers' hotel. The IPY service in Kangerlussuaq is a cooperative effort between Danish Polar Center, Kangerlussuaq International Science Support (KISS), and Greenland Home Rule's Office for Research Coordination. The IPY service was targeted at the many researchers coming to Greenland during IPY. More information can be found through both the IPY and Danish Polar Centre websites (links above).
Website available in
Also known as Forskningscentralen for de Inhemska Spraken (FCIS). The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland is a national research centre and expert institution for linguistic studies. Finnish, Swedish, Saami languages, Romany, and Finnish Sign Language are studied. Main tasks include language planning, compilation of dictionaries, and various research projects. An extensive library and comprehensive linguistic archives are located on site.
Much of Greenland's wholesale and retail business is managed by the publicly owned company KNI (Kalaallit Niuerfiat, Greenland Trade). The company is divided into two separate units, Pisiffik A/S, which operates in the ten largest towns, and Pilersuisoq A/S, which supplies settlements and smaller towns. Trade and sales together employ around 3,500 people. An essential component of Greenland's trade is brædtet (the board), where hunters and fishermen sell seasonal produce directly to the public. Larger towns have purpose-built facilities with electricity and water for brædtet, while smaller towns and settlements manage with simple open-air stands.
Website available in
In the Netherlands, KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) is known mainly for its weather forecasts and warnings, but it also does a lot more in its capacity as a national data and knowledge centre for weather, climate research and seismology. It disseminates weather information to the public at large, the government, aviation and the shipping industry in the interest of safety, the economy and a sustainable environment. To gain insight into long-term developments, KNMI conducts research on climate change. Making the knowledge, data and information at KNMI accessible is one core activity of the institution.
Website available in
Statistics Greenland (SG) is the central authority within the area in Greenland. SG is under the Department of Finances of the Greenland Home Rule Government as an independent institution financed by the appropriation of the Parliament of Greenland and by orders from private and public customers. SG collects process and publicizes statistical material concerning social issues in Greenland with the purpose for a solid ground for the decision makers, politically and administratively and for the analysis of social scientific research.
A national union of organizations with interest in the protection of northern areas of Norway and Russia. Current members include: Foreningen Framtiden i Vare Henden, Norges Naturvernforbund, WWF Verdens Naturfond, Norsk Zoologisk Forening, Norsk Ornitologisk Forening, and Foreningen Vare Rovdyr. KNO has Observer Status within the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy Process.
Website available in
Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa (The Greenlandic Broadcasting Corporation) is an independent public body administered by the Greenlandic Government. It is headed by a 7-man board, with its day-to-day running in the hands of a management committee. KNR broadcasts both radio and television programmes every day, which can be received throughout Greenland. KNR, which is the most important media enterprise in Greenland, is financed by contributions from the national treasury, by advertising, sponsorship, etc. Its range of programmes include social affairs, youth programmes, cultural material, entertainment, music, and news, both domestic and from all over the world.
Website available in
The mission of the Korea Polar Research Institute is:
- To undertake a world-class programme of scientific research, survey and long term observations addressing key issues of global or fundamental importance that require access to the Arctic/Antarctic or related regions;
- To sustain for the Korea an active and influential regional presence and a leadership role in polar affairs;
- To maintain an integrated, well-managed national capability to support the overall national science strategy, to exploit research outcomes, and to raise public awareness worldwide;
- To assist in the discharge of the Korean international responsibilities under the Antarctic Treaty System and with the administration of KORDI; and
- To provide reliable and independent advice to the Korean government and other stakeholders, contributing to the effectiveness of Korean public services and policy.
A division of KOPRI. Article III (1) (c) of the Antarctic Treaty calls on Parties to exchange and make freely available scientific observations and results from Antarctica. In support of this, and within certain limitations (defined in the KPDC Data Policy) KPDC data sets are available for use by bona fide non-commercial scientific or student projects. Requests for the data sets can be made either via the KPDC Manager or directly via the relevant Scientist or Data Manager.
Website available in
The Kevo Research Station is situated by Lake Kevojärvi in the community of Utsjoki, the northernmost municipality in Finnish Lapland. The site (69°45'N, 27°01'E, 80 m asl) lies about 60 km north of the northernmost limit of pine trees and belongs to the subarctic forest tundra zone, a birch subzone of the boreal coniferous forest. The research area as a whole comprises mainly the biological province of Inari Lapland, an area of approximately 20 000 km² that includes the large Lake Inari.
Kongsberg Satellite Services AS (KSAT) is a commercial Norwegian enterprise providing services based on data from polar orbiting satellites such as Telemetry, Tracking and Command services (TT&C), Global data dump services, and Operational Earth Observation. The company currently operates three ground stations; the Tromsø Station at 69°39´N 18°56´E , Svalbard Satellite Station (SvalSat) at 78°15´N 15°80´E., and Grimstad, (South Norway) at 58°20´N 8°21´E. TrollSat, at 72°S 2°E, became operational in 2007. The Northern locations of Tromsø and SvalSat are ideal for data acquisition and TT&C services from polar orbiting satellites. KSAT is in the unique position to offer operational services for all polar orbiting passes due to the exclusive latitude of the ground stations. The Southern location of TrollSat now enables KSAT to utilize the concept of Pole-to-Pole interaction, with the ability to dump data and perform TT&C on both poles.
One of Russia's largest preserves, the Kronotsky State Biosphere Preserve (KSBP) has the highest designation of all protected areas in the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka." KSBP is a multi-faceted jewel covering over one million hectares of land and a 3-mile wide swath of ocean along 152 miles of shoreline. It is also one of the most dynamic, geologically active protected areas in the world and one of the oldest protected areas in Russia. The KSBP is located in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, backed by the Vostochniy Mountain Range.
Website available in
The Kola Science Centre (KSC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences is an integrated scientific institution in the Euro-Arctic region that pursues fundamental research on features of the globe's high- latitude regions. This research is used to form the scientific basis for assessing resource potentials, as well as to develop rational strategies for Arctic development. Research at the KSC is divided into 4 blocks: Arctic Nature, State and Evolution; The Rational Use of Nature and Creation of an Ecologically Safe Technosphere in the North; Social Sphere and Economy of the North; and Informatization of the North as a Strategic Resource for Regional Development.
Website available in
The Komi Science Centre (KSC) is a multi-disciplinary research complex engaged in fundamental and applied studies. The KSC embraces six large academic institutions (Institute of Geology; Institute of Biology; Institute of Physiology; Institute of Language, Literature and History; Institute for Socio-Economic and Energy Problems of the North; Institute of Chemistry) as well as the Vylgort Scientific Experimental Biological Station. The Institutes of the KSC are situated in separate specialized buildings with modern facilities for scientific research and experiments. There are several permanent field-work research stations. The KSC possesses a scientific library, archives, and Patent-Licence and Inventions Department.
KSD contracts with the state and federal government to provide services to residents of the Bering Strait Region, 75% of whom are of Eskimo, Aleut, or American Indian descent. The goal of KSD is to help Alaska Native people and their governing bodies take control of their future. With programs ranging from education to housing, and natural resource management to economic development, KSD seeks to improve the Region's social, economic, educational, cultural and political conditions. KSD is governed by a Board of Directors comprised of the president (or designee) of the IRA or traditional Councils, two elder representatives, and a representative from the regional health care provider.
Website available in
With over 37,000 students and more than 7,000 employees, the University of Copenhagen is the largest institution of research and education in Denmark. Departments of interest include the Geophysical Institute, the Department of Eskimology, and the Institute of Geography.
Website available in
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is an independent organisation with the objective of promoting the sciences and strengthening their influence in society. The Academy seeks chiefly:
- to be a forum where researchers can meet across subject borders
- to offer unique research environments
- to support young researchers
- to reward prominent contributions to research
- to arrange international scientific contacts
- to act as a voice of science and influence research policy priorities
- to stimulate interest in mathematics and the natural sciences in schools
- to disseminate scientific and popular-scientific information in various forms.
KVUG - Kommissionen for Videnskabelige Undersoegelser i Groenland (Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland)http://en.fi.dk/councils-commissions/the-danish-council-for-independent-research/scientific-research-councils/natural-sciences/?searchterm=Commission%20for%20Scientific%20Research%20in%20Greenland
A division of the Danish Council for Independent Research. The Danish Council for Independent Research / Natural Sciences (FNU) covers all aspects of research geared towards basic scientific issues within the natural sciences, computer science and mathematics.
Who's Who - Polar Acronyms
© Tayana Arakchaa, Ruth Hindshaw, Iglika Trifonova, Caroline Coch,Victorio Maximiliano Rocchi (left to right)
We all know there are loads of acronyms in Polar Science and its often hard to remember what they all stand for. Thanks to a few dedicated APECS members we are happy to share this Who's Who of Polar Science list. Have fun learning about the many neat areas of polar science and if there are things that aren't on this list, just let us know and we'll be happy to add them!
Lakehead University’s Interdisciplinary Degree in Northern Studies provides students with opportunities to explore their interests in the peoples and environments of the northern parts of Canada’s provinces and territories, as well as other parts of the circumpolar world. In one of Lakehead’s interdisciplinary programs, students will complete a core set of courses that encourage appraisal and understanding of common northern issues from a variety of academic and social perspectives. Remaining courses can be selected from a wide-range of options in specific disciplines: Biology, Chemistry, Geography, History, Indigenous Learning, Languages, Sociology and Social Work.
The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is a leading research institution where more than 200 research scientists seek fundamental knowledge about the origin, evolution and future of the natural world. LDEO scientists observe Earth on a global scale, from its deepest interior to the outer reaches of its atmosphere, on every continent and in every ocean. They decipher the long record of the past, monitor the present, and seek to foresee Earth’s future.
Promotes research on the Finnish province of Lapland and strives to improve co-operation between research and daily life.
The University of Lapland is the northernmost university in Finland and in the European Union. The University of Lapland is located in the city of Rovaniemi on the Arctic Circle. It is a research, teaching and information centre. Research focuses on global change with an emphasis on human-induced changes and its consequences in the Arctic. The school coordinates undergraduate and graduate courses in the University of Lapland's Arctic Studies Program. In addition to sizeable holdings of Arctic literature, the Library contains the Carl Erik Lindh collection of historic maps. The IASC Global Change Programme Office is located here, as is the secretariat of The Northern Forum Academy.
LEGGAN is an Argentinean lab that carries out ice core and water geochemistry studies.
LGGE - Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de I Environnement (Laboratory of Glaciology and Geophysics of the Environment)http://www-lgge.ujf-grenoble.fr/
The Laboratory of Glaciology and Geophysics of the Environment (LGGE) is a coeducational research unit under the double tutelage of the National Centre for Scientific research and the University Joseph Fourier (UJF, Grenoble ). LGGE built its scientific reputation on the study of climate and the composition of the atmosphere. These studies concern the present, but also snow and ice data collected over the course of time.
The history of the National Land Survey of Iceland can be traced back to the turn of the 20th century, when the surveying branch of the Danish General Staff began mapping the country. The institute is located at Stillholt 16-18 in Akranes where it has been located since January 1, 1999. The institute currently has a staff of 28. Their objective is to provide and share geographical information on Iceland.
In 1973, the Labrador Inuit Association (LIA) was formed to promote Inuit culture; improve the health and well-being of our people; protect our constitutional, democratic and human rights; and advance Labrador Inuit claims with Canada and Newfoundland to our land and to self-government. In 1977, the LIA began the long journey towards self-government by filing a statement of claim with the Government of Canada seeking rights to the ‘land and sea ice in Northern Labrador'.
The Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement (LILCA) defines the rights of Labrador Inuit in and to our ancestral lands. It is basically a contract between the Inuit of Labrador (represented by the Labrador Inuit Association), the Government of Canada and the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. The LILCA was ratified by the Labrador Inuit; the legislative assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador; and the Parliament of Canada.
Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) is a New Zealand government department responsible for land titles, geodetic and cadastral survey systems, topographic information, hydrographic information, managing Crown property and a variety of other functions. LINZ’s purpose is to maintain and build confidence in property rights in land and geographic information, and to encourage land information markets to develop and mature.
Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) are relatively large areas of ocean space (approximately 200,000 km² or larger) adjacent to the continents in coastal waters where primary productivity is generally higher than in open ocean areas. The LMEs produce about 80% of the world’s marine fisheries catch each year. Globally they are centers of coastal ocean pollution and nutrient over enrichment, habitat degradation (e.g. sea grasses, corals, mangroves), overfishing, biodiversity loss, and climate change effects. This LME Portal provides briefs on conditions, publications, and information on LME assessment and management projects.
LOICZ is an international research project involving scientists from across the globe who have been investigating changes in the biology, chemistry and physics of the coastal zone since 1993. Since 2003, LOICZ has expanded its areas of research to include social, political and economic sciences in order to address the human dimensions of the coastal zone. The research results are used to explore the role humans play in the coastal zone, their vulnerability to changing environments, and the options to protect coasts for future generations. The main goal of LOICZ is “to provide the knowledge, understanding and prediction needed to allow coastal communities to assess, anticipate and respond to the interaction of global change and local pressures which determine coastal change.”
The LPC is a laboratory in the Department of Geography at the University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Canada). We are involved in the analysis and modeling of climate changes and their impacts on ecosystems. The emphasis of our work is the analysis of the past (the fossil record) as a way to better understand the present and the future. Our lab is unique in that we combine work typically done by several specialist groups: the gathering and analysis of new paleoecological and paleolimnological data, especially from lake sediment cores; the statistical analysis of databases of environmental change, with an emphasis of spatial analysis; and the modeling of environmental processes. One of the particular interests of the physical geographers in our department is northern Canada and the Arctic and much of the new data we are collecting comes from this region.
With more than 9,000 full-time and part-time students, Laurentian University is a mirror of Canada itself. One of only two bilingual universities in the country, we have a significant Native Student population and a growing number of international students. The Gardner Northern Collection of the Laurentian University Library consists of material donated by Gerard Gardner in 1980, or subsequently acquired, and is particularly strong in the biological sciences for Arctic and sub-Arctic eastern Canada. There is also a unique collection of 80,000 press clippings (1930-) for which various catalogues have been published. The Department of Biology has operated the Eskimo Point Arctic Research Centre since 1987.
Luleå University of Technology is the northernmost university of technology in Scandinavia and with world-class research and education. Our strength lies in our cooperation with companies and with rest of the world around us. Our contact with companies and society help us develop research and education that satisfy the demands that the world makes on us and our students. The COLDTECH Foundation was formed in 1986. Since 1996, COLDTECH has been an integrated part of Luleå University of Technology. The aim of COLDTECH is to support research and development within the field of cold climate technology. Luleå University of Technology has always focused on research and development in cold climate engineering. The theme is quite natural due to the geographical location of the university. Research is carried out within a broad area of technology, in connection with the specific demands imposed by the climate. Presently, more than 70 persons at the University are involved in research projects concerning cold climate technology. One of COLDTECH's goals is to bring research and industry closer together. Determining the needs and interests of business is one of COLDTECH's main tasks.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is an international synthesis by over 1000 of the world's leading biological scientists that analyses the state of the Earth's ecosystems and provides summaries and guidelines for decision-makers. It concludes that human activity is having a significant and escalating impact on the biodiversity of world ecosystems, reducing both their resilience and biocapacity.
The Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme aiming to set a scientific basis for the improvement of the relationships between people and their global environment. Launched in the early 1970s, it proposes an interdisciplinary research agenda and capacity building that targets the ecological, social and economic dimensions of biodiversity loss, and the reduction of this loss.
The over-all objective Of MACESIZ is to explore, quantify and simulate past, present and future natural and anthropogenic climate variability and changes, and determine the response of the marine ecosystem in the seasonal ice zone of the Greenland Sea, the Fram Strait, and the Barents Sea.
MAGICS - Mass Balance of Arctic Glaciers and Ice Sheets in Relation to the Climate and Sea-level Changeshttp://www.iasc-nag.org/
The objective of the Working Group is to facilitate research on the dynamics and mass budgets of Arctic glaciers. The Working Group wants to make a significant contribution to assessments of the impact of climate change in the Arctic region.
MAGS is a series of large-scale hydrological studies, and related atmospheric and land-atmosphere studies, to be conducted within the Mackenzie Basin in Canada. Results from MAGS will provide an improved understanding of cold region, high latitude hydrological and meteorological processes, and the role that they play in the global climate system.
The main objective of MAIA was the development of an inexpensive, reliable system for monitoring the inflow of Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas based on coastal sea level data, and to examine how changes in ice extent in the north are related to this flux. Available observation systems, including standard tidal stations, were used to obtain transport estimates with a time resolution of less than a week, and the method was tested to find out if it could be applied to a similar monitoring of other regions.
The Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) is an international research initiative devoted to the study of atmospheric and hydrological processes over mountainous terrain. It aims to expand our knowledge of weather and climate over complex topography, and thereby to improve current forecasting capabilities.
MariClim - Marine Ecosystem consequences of climate induced changes in water masses off West-Spitsbergenhttp://mariclim.npolar.no/
The overall goal of this project is to determine the influence of climate variability and change on energy transfer in the marine pelagic ecosystem in different water masses on the west coast of Spitsbergen. The project will compare pelagic food webs in fronts involving Arctic (ArW) and Atlantic water masses (AW) in this high-Arctic region.
The Master Environmental Library (MEL) is a Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) sponsored, one-stop site for ordering environmental information. Through MEL, users locate and order environmental information that resides at different United States military and government sites.
The MERS research group is an interdisciplinary research group dedicated to the development and application of microwave remote sensing techniques to the study of the Earth. Members of the group are students and faculty at Brigham Young University. Research is sponsored by NASA, NSF, the Air Force, and private sponsors. The MERS Laboratory supports the MERS research group.
At present, it is unclear to what extent these models agree with one another, or indeed, how well they are able to model real marine ice sheets. The purpose of the proposed experiments is to address the question: how well do our models agree with one another? In addition, the purpose of the experiments is to assess how well the numerical schemes used solve the partial differential equations on which they are based agree.
Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) is the oldest institution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the North of Russia. Since 1935 the Institute has been pursuing complex research on northern seas, consistently expanding the geography of its activities from Dalnie Zelentsy Bay (Kola Peninsula coast) to the Greenland Sea in the west and the Laptev Sea in the east. In 1996 the Institute included the southern seas of Russia into the scope of its interests, and since then both the Barents Sea and the Sea of Azov have been the focus of MMBI research activities.
MOSAiC is an initiative developed via IASC and its Atmospheric working group. Multi-year, detailed, and comprehensive measurements, extending from the atmosphere through the sea-ice and into the ocean of the central Arctic Basin are needed to improve our understanding and modeling of Arctic climate and weather, and enhance Arctic sea-ice predictive capabilities. These observations will be designed to provide a process-level understanding of the new central Arctic climate system, consisting of dramatically less and thinner sea-ice than in the recent past, as well as a more detailed understanding of the processes leading to these sea-ice changes. Scientific emphasis will be placed on processes that transfer heat, moisture, density, and momentum through the system. To obtain the needed measurements, a manned, transpolar drifting observatory is proposed, wherein an ice-hardened ship serves as a central hub for intensive observations of atmospheric, oceanic, and sea-ice properties over 1-2 years’ time. The comprehensive information from this central facility will be expanded to larger spatial scales using a coordinated network of distributed measurements made using buoys, unmanned aerial systems, autonomous underwater vehicles, additional ships, aircraft, and satellites. A broad consortium of nations and funding agencies is needed to facilitate, coordinate, and support such a constellation of central Arctic observations.
To analyze the Automatic Weather Station (AWS) dataset to identify katabatic wind events and gather information and statistics on katabatic wind events. Also to examine temporal and spatial development of Antarctic katabatic and to study the structure of katabatic winds. This is a project from the National Antarctic Research Center, University of Malaya, Malaysia.
The Mountain Research Initiative (MRI) is a multidisciplinary scientific organization that addresses global change issues in mountain regions around the world. MRI is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.
NAFO is an intergovernmental fisheries science and management body. NAFO was founded in 1979 as a successor to ICNAF (International Commission of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries). NAFO's overall objective is to contribute through consultation and cooperation to the optimum utilization, rational management, and conservation of the fishery resources of the Convention Area.
NAMMCO - the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission - is an international body for cooperation on the conservation, management and study of marine mammals in the North Atlantic. NAMMCO provides a mechanism for cooperation on conservation and management for all species of cetaceans (whales and dolphins) and pinnipeds (seals and walruses) in the region, many of which have not before been covered by such an international agreement.
The goal of the programme is to enhance Nordic competence by building scientific cooperation within selected subject areas. This will happen through network building, training and mobility of researchers, workshops and pilot studies.
NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research. NASA conducts its work in four principal organizations, called mission directorates: Aeronautics, Exploration Systems, Science, and Space Operations.
Four organizations comprise the Academies: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council. Known collectively as the National Academies, this organization produces groundbreaking reports that have helped shape sound policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine.
The NATO Science Programme addresses environmental security in the Arctic Ocean. NATO helps integrate human and social dynamics into natural disaster response. The NATO science programme also examines origins, trends and methods of tackling suicide terrorism.
The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) maximizes seapower by applying relevant oceanographic knowledge in support of U.S. National Security. Naval Ice Center (NAVICE)/National Ice Center (NIC) is a subordinate command of NAVO and is also a part of the National Ice Center (NIC). The National Ice Center is a tri-agency operational center represented by the U.S. Navy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The National Ice Center mission is to provide worldwide operational ice analyses for the armed forces of the United States and its allied nations, and U.S. government agencies.
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a federally funded research and development center devoted to service, research and education in the atmospheric and related sciences. NCAR's mission is to understand the behavior of the atmosphere and related physical, biological and social systems; to support, enhance and extend the capabilities of the university community and the broader scientific community, nationally and internationally; and to foster transfer of knowledge and technology for the betterment of life on Earth.
The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is the world's largest active archive of weather data. Our mission is to provide access and stewardship to the Nation's resource of global climate and weather related data and information, and assess and monitor climate variation and change. This effort requires the acquisition, quality control, processing, summarization, dissemination, and preservation of a vast array of climatological data generated by the national and international meteorological services. NCDC's mission is global in nature and provides the U.S. climate representative to the World Meteorological Organization, the World Data Center System, and other international scientific programs.
The Northern Climate ExChange is a clearinghouse of climate change information for Northern Canada. Their mandate is to provide independent information, develop shared understanding, and promote action on climate change. NCE opened in February 2000, at the Northern Research Institute of Yukon College. The centre was created in response to growing concern over the impacts of climate change on the land, life, and communities of northern Canada.
The Office of the Director at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction gives overarching management to the nine centers, which include the: Aviation Weather Center, Climate Prediction Center, Environmental Modeling Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, NCEP Central Operations, Ocean Prediction Center, Space Weather Prediction Center, Storm Prediction Center, and Tropical Prediction Center.
The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) was established in 1991 in response to concerns about human exposure to elevated levels of contaminants in wildlife species that are important to the traditional diets of northern Aboriginal peoples. Early studies found a wide variety of substances, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources, but which were, nevertheless, reaching unexpectedly high levels in the Arctic ecosystem.
NEESPI is designed to establish an international, large-scale, interdisciplinary program aimed at developing a better understanding of the interactions between the terrestrial ecosystem, the atmosphere, and human dynamics in Northern Eurasia. To conduct a large-scale, interdisciplinary program of funded research aimed at developing a better understanding of the interactions between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere, with a special emphasis on the human impacts and feedbacks in northern Eurasia in support of international Earth science programs with particular relevance to global climate change research interests (including carbon) and international sponsoring agency funding priorities.
Northeast Fisheries Science Center is the research arm of NOAA Fisheries in the region. The Center plans, develops, and manages a multidisciplinary program of basic and applied research to: better understand living marine resources of the Northeast Continental Shelf Ecosystem from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, and the habitat quality essential for their existence and continued productivity; and describe and provide to management, industry, and the public, options for the conservation and utilization of living marine resources, and for the restoration and maintenance of marine environmental quality.
NERC is the UK's main agency for funding and managing research, training and knowledge exchange in the environmental sciences. We coordinate some of the world's most exciting research projects, tackling major issues such as climate change, environmental influences on human health, the genetic make-up of life on earth, and much more. NERC is a non-departmental public body. We receive funding from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
Airborne remote sensing provides an efficient method for the rapid collection of data over a specified area; consequently it is a cost effective means of monitoring the terrestrial, freshwater, marine and atmospheric environments, provides a transitionary scale with which to validate satellite data, and enables the rapid acquisition of data for sudden or unexpected events, such as floods and earthquakes. Since 1983 the facility has supported a wide range of applications, including environmental science, geomorphology, archaeology, ecology, geologic surveying, pollution control and disaster management.
Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) is an independent non-profit research institute affiliated with the University of Bergen, Norway. The Nansen Center conducts basic and applied environmental research funded by national and international governmental agencies, research councils and industry. NERSC's vision is to make a significant contribution to the understanding, monitoring and forecasting of the world's environment and climate on regional and global scales. This is done through coordination and participation in national and international research program.
NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides scientific stewardship, products, and services for geophysical data from the Sun to the Earth and Earth's sea floor and solid earth environment, including Earth observations from space.
The National Ice Center (NIC) is a multi-agency operational center operated by the United States Navy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Coast Guard. Our mission is to provide the highest quality, timely, accurate, and relevant snow and ice products and services to meet the strategic, operations, and tactical requirements of the United States interests across the global area of responsibility.
The National Institute for Climatic Change Research (NICCR, pronounced "nicer") is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), which is part of the DOE's Office of Science. The goal of NICCR is to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR is managed and coordinated through five Regional Centers, hosted by Pennsylvania State University, Duke University, Michigan Technological University, Northern Arizona University, and Tulane University.
The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility for storing, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world. It provides scientists with the capability to conduct examinations and measurements on ice cores, and it preserves the integrity of these ice cores in a long-term repository for current and future investigations.
NILU is an independent, nonprofit institution established in 1969. Through its research NILU increases the understanding of processes and effects of climate change, of the composition of the atmosphere, of air quality and of hazardous substances. Based on its research, NILU markets integrated services and products within the analytical, monitoring and consulting sectors. NILU is concerned with increasing public awareness about climate change and environmental pollution.
The Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is the distributor of public sale National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) topographic maps, publications, and digital products. This catalog contains product descriptions, and availability for NIMA produced topographic maps and publications.
The Northern Information Network (NIN) encourages information sharing about the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut for more effective decision making in areas such as resource management and economic development. NIN supports a variety of research initiatives in and about the North, including project impact assessments, sustainable development strategies, wildlife management planning, land-use planning, and emergency preparedness. NIN also shares information pertinent to the protection of the environment, economic development and social well-being in the North. Publication list available.
NIOZ, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, is the National Oceanographic Institution of the Netherlands. The institute was founded in 1876 and is part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The mission of NIOZ is to gain and communicate scientific knowledge on seas and oceans for the understanding and sustainability of our planet, and to facilitate and support marine research and education in the Netherlands and Europe.
The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) was founded in 1973 to develop comprehensive research and observations in polar regions. It is an Inter-University Research Institute and a key institute for the implementing of Japanese Antarctic research programs. In 2004, NIPR became a component of the Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS).
The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) conducts research on marine mammals important to the mission of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with particular attention to issues related to marine mammals off the coasts of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California. Research projects focus on ecology and behavior, population dynamics, life history, and status and trends. Information is provided to various domestic and international organizations to assist in developing rational and appropriate management regimes for marine resources under NOAA's jurisdiction.
NNBY reaffirms and maintains First Nation culture, spiritual beliefs, language, traditional values, land and animals. NNBY works for present and future generations, looking seven generations into the future. While it focuses on First Nations, NNBY is for all people. NNBY protects traditional knowledge, empowers First Nations people, supports self determination of First Nations, and facilitates the development of a respectful relationship between First Nations and other people. Culture also includes stories and customs, improving quality of life, and fosters the development of positive social and economic partnerships.
NOAA is an agency that enriches life through science. Their reach goes from the surface of the sun to the depths of the ocean floor as NOAA works to keep citizens informed of the changing environment around them. From daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings and climate monitoring to fisheries management, coastal restoration and supporting marine commerce, NOAA's products and services support economic vitality and affect more than one-third of America's gross domestic product. NOAA's dedicated scientists use cutting-edge research and high-tech instrumentation to provide citizens, planners, emergency managers and other decision makers with they reliable information they need, when they need it.
NESDIS is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources to promote, protect, and enhance the Nation's economy, security, environment, and quality of life. To fulfill its responsibilities, NESDIS acquires and manages the nation's operational environmental satellites, operates the NOAA National Data Centers, provides data and information services including Earth system monitoring, performs official assessments of the environment, and conducts related research. The NESDIS vision is to be the world's most comprehensive source and recognized authority for satellite products, environmental information, and official assessments of the environment in support of societal and economic decisions.
The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) is one of the national environmental data centers operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce. These discipline-oriented centers serve as national repositories and dissemination facilities for global environmental data. The data archives amassed by the NODC and the other centers provide a record of Earth's changing environment, and support numerous research and operational applications. Working cooperatively, the centers provide data products and services to scientists, engineers, resource managers, policy makers, and other users in the United States and around the world.
The National Ocean Service (NOS) translates science, tools, and services into action to address threats to coastal areas such as climate change, population growth, port congestion, and contaminants in the environment, all working towards healthy coasts and healthy economies. The NOS mission is to provide science-based solutions through collaborative partnerships to address evolving economic, environmental, and social pressures on our oceans and coasts.
The Norwegian Polar Institute is Norway's central institution for research, environmental monitoring and mapping of the polar regions. The Institute is the Norwegian authorities' adviser and supplier of knowledge, and contributes to the best possible administration of Norwegian polar areas.
NPS provides high-quality, relevant and unique advanced education and research programs that increase the combat effectiveness of the Naval Services, other Armed Forces of the U.S., and our partners, to enhance our national security.
The National Research Council (NRC) is the Government of Canada's premier organization for research and development.
The Northern Research Forum (NRF) provides an international platform for an effective dialogue between members of the research community and a wide range of stakeholders including researchers, educators, politicians, business leaders, civil servants, community leaders, NGO representatives, and resource users and managers. The main mission of the NRF is to address the critical issues and highlight the opportunities which face people living in the regions of the Circumpolar North including the Nordic Region.
The Northern Research Institute (NRI) is the division of Yukon College that provides research services and support to the College and other organizations. Both the Northern Climate ExChange and the Yukon Technology Innovation Program are located in the NRI annex building located behind the College. Services offered through the NRI include: research fellowships, contract research, logistical support for research, technology development, and northern climate change research and education. NRI also houses the Social Economy Research Network of Northern Canada.
The Nunavut Research Institute strives to provide leadership in developing, facilitating and promoting traditional knowledge, science, research and technology as a resource for the well-being of people in Nunavut.
NSERC aims to make Canada a country of discoverers and innovators for the benefit of all Canadians. The agency supports university students in their advanced studies, promotes and supports discovery research, and fosters innovation by encouraging Canadian companies to participate and invest in postsecondary research projects. NSERC researchers are on the vanguard of science, building on Canada's long tradition of scientific excellence.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense". With an annual budget of about $6.9 billion (2010 fiscal year), they are the funding source for approximately 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America's colleges and universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing.
The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is part of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder. NSIDC supports research into our world's frozen realms: the snow, ice, glaciers, frozen ground, and climate interactions that make up Earth's cryosphere. Scientific data, whether taken in the field or relayed from satellites orbiting Earth, form the foundation for the scientific research that informs the world about our planet and our climate systems. NSIDC manages and distributes scientific data, creates tools for data access, supports data users, performs scientific research, and educates the public about the cryosphere.
The Nunavut Database contains descriptions of 29,000 publications and research projects about Nunavut and the adjacent waters, the Canadian Arctic as a whole, and the circumpolar Arctic as a whole. The database was created for the Nunavut Planning Commission by the Arctic Science and Technology Information System. The Nunavut Database contains two different types of records: citations to publications and research project descriptions.
The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) funds thousands of top researchers at universities and institutes and steers the course of Dutch science by means of subsidies and research programmes.
The Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee (NySMAC) was established in 1994 to enhance cooperation and coordination amongst research activities at the Ny-Ålesund International Arctic Research and Monitoring Facility. NySMAC ensures that ongoing and planned research is not in conflict with environmental laws and regulations, and provides advice and comments on issues such as research planning and coordination, infrastructure development, and environmental protection.
Antarctica New Zealand is the Crown Entity responsible for developing, managing and executing New Zealand Government activities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, in particular the Ross Dependency. Antarctica New Zealand manages Scott Base, New Zealand's Antarctic research station. It maintains New Zealand's operational presence in the Ross Dependency for the benefit of present and future generations of New Zealanders. Key activities include supporting scientific research, conserving the intrinsic values of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, and raising public awareness of the international significance of the continent.
OAII, implemented in 1991, was the second component of the Arctic System Science Program (NSF) to get underway. The marine environment of the Arctic is an interactive system comprising the water, ice, air, biota, dissolved chemicals and sediments of the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas. OAII seeks to enhance understanding of this system and its role in climate and global change. Six science priorities have been identified during the planning process for ARCSS/OAII:
- Surface energy budget, atmospheric radiation and clouds
- Circulation of the Arctic Ocean
- Hydrologic cycle of the Arctic Basin
- Productivity and biogeochemical cycling
- Coupled air-sea-ice modeling
- Paleoceanography of the Arctic.
- Atmospheric Sciences
The international multidisciplinary Ocean - Atmosphere - Sea Ice - Snowpack (OASIS) program studies chemical and physical exchange processes between the title reservoirs. It focuses on their impact on tropospheric chemistry and climate, as well as on the surface/biosphere and their feedbacks in the Arctic. OASIS was created in 2004, was an IPY activity, and is planned to continue as a long term program for the next decade.
The Ocean Information Center has been operational at the Graduate College of Marine Studies of the University of Delaware in Lewes, DE since early 1986. The Center has been working on numerous of issues dealing with the management of oceanographic data and is working on a variety of information systems and oceanographic projects as part of that research. The Ocean Information Center is involved in developing and operating Data Information Units for The Global Observing Systems Information Center and the International Research Ship Schedule and Ship Information database.
Oceanites, Inc. was founded in 1987 in the United States. Its major scientific project is the Antarctic Site Inventory, which began collecting and compiling baseline biological and physical data and descriptive information in 1994. In 2006, via a website, Oceanites began a long-term, multi-language educational effort to disseminate internationally - and to as wide an audience as possible - all that we've compiled. Ultimately, the website will be a virtual classroom that allows interested adults and children to "plug into" a wealth of presentations, videos, and downloadable materials about key subjects.
The OKalaKatiget Society provides Inuktitut and English language programming to Inuit in the Northern Labrador and Lake Melville region. This aboriginal language programming is designed to strengthen our culture through language retention. The Society has set the following mandate for itself:
- To preserve and promote the cultural identity of the Inuit of Northern Labrador and Lake Melville region.
- To preserve and enhance the local Inuktitut language.
- To develop better communication by and between the people of Northern Labrador.
- To encourage public awareness, discussion and understanding of social issues between the people of Northern Labrador.
- To encourage public awareness and understanding outside Northern Labrador of the Labrador Inuit culture.
Northern Ontario makes up about 90 per cent of Ontario, and is bigger than most provinces. In this rugged and varied land, you'll find everything from towns and cities to farmland and forest to muskeg and rock. Only the most remote parts of the province are not linked by permanent roads or Internet service. The Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry advocates on behalf of Ontario's northern region, as well as on behalf of the province's minerals industry and its forest sector industries. We deliver government programs and services in Northern Ontario and represent the interests of our partners and stakeholders at Queen's Park.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR), headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, is the office within the United States Department of the Navy that coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps through schools, universities, government laboratories, and nonprofit and for-profit organizations. ONR executes its mission through the following departments:
- Science & Technology Departments
- ONR Corporate Programs
- Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)
- ONR Global Office
The Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC) is a scientific expert advisory group charged with making recommendations for a sustained global ocean observing system for climate in support of the goals of its sponsors. This includes recommendations for phased implementation. The Panel also aids in the development of strategies for evaluation and evolution of the system and of its recommendations, and supports global ocean observing activities by interested parties through liaison and advocacy for the agreed observing plans.
The Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) is an integral component of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) located at the NOAA Science Center in Camp Springs, MD. The primary responsibility is the issuance of marine warnings, forecasts, and guidance in text and graphical format for maritime users. Also, the OPC quality controls marine observations globally from ship, buoy, and automated marine observations for gross errors prior to being assimilated into computer model guidance. The Ocean Prediction Center also provides forecast points in coordination with the National Hurricane Center (NHC) for Tropical Cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean E of 60W and N of 20N.OPC originates and issues marine warnings and forecasts, continually monitors and analyzes maritime data, and provides guidance of marine atmospheric variables for purposes of protection of life and property, safety at sea, and enhancement of economic opportunity.
The Office of Polar Programs (OPP) manages and initiates National Science Foundation (NSF) funding for basic research and its operational support in the Arctic and the Antarctic. The funds are provided as NSF grants to institutions (mainly U.S. universities), whose scientists perform the research at the institutions or in a polar region, and as cooperative agreements or contracts to support organizations including contractors and the U.S. military. Organizationally, OPP has two science divisions - one each for the Arctic and the Antarctic. A third division manages the provision of logistics and support operations including field stations, camps, and laboratories. Environmental, health and safety issues are handled by the Office of Polar Environment, Health and Safety.
Joint research projects such as the Laptev Sea System project led to a joint initiative focusing upon the support of young scientists in Russia and Germany. In 2000, this initiative culminated in the establishment of the OSL. By way of its fellowship program, the OSL enables young highly qualified scholars to carry out specific research projects in polar and marine sciences. The program pairs master students, graduated research assistants, and postdoctoral fellows with experienced scientists in Russia and Germany. Together they work on well-focused tasks of mutual interest. Summer school courses are offered and an exchange of scientists is promoted. To fulfil its tasks in research and education, the OSL is equipped with a state-of-the-art laboratory for polar and marine research, computer workstations incl. periphery (such as scanner, AO-Plotter, LCD projector, Internet access) and an international library.
Founded in 1939, the OSNZ was incorporated in 1953 and now has about 1000 financial members world-wide. A feature of OSNZ is the diversity of its membership, which ranges from professional ornithologists and government institutions in New Zealand and overseas through secondary and tertiary students and experienced amateur observers to learners and beginners. No special qualifications are required for admission and membership is open to all who are interested in birds.
Website available in
Runs a Circumpolar Studies Program and has operated the Oulanka Biological Station (66.22'N; 29.21'E) since 1966 carrying out a programme of biological and geological research. The Research, Education and Development Center of Kajaani (formerly Research Institute of Northern Finland) carries out research and teaching activities with a northern focus. The University Library contains large holdings for the Saami, including the library of the ethnographer Samuli Paula Harju.
The Pacific Arctic Group (PAG) is a group of institutes and individuals having a Pacific perspective on Arctic science. Organized under the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the PAG has as its mission to serve as a Pacific Arctic regional partnership to plan, coordinate, and collaborate on science activities of mutual interest. The four PAG principle science themes are climate, contaminants, human dimensions and structure and function of Arctic ecosystems.
PAGES (Past Global Changes) supports research aimed at understanding the Earth’s past environment in order to make predictions for the future. We encourage international and interdisciplinary collaborations and seek to promote the involvement of scientists from developing countries in the global paleo-community discourse. PAGES scope of interest includes the physical climate system, biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem processes, biodiversity, and human dimensions, on different time scales—Pleistocene, Holocene, last millennium and the recent past.
PAME is one of six Arctic Council working groups. PAME was first established under the 1991 Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy and was continued by the 1996 Ottawa Charter that established the Arctic Council. PAME is the focal point of the Arctic Council's activities related to the protection and sustainable use of the Arctic marine environment. It has a specific mandate to keep under review the adequacy of global and regional legal, policy and other measures, and where necessary to make recommendations for improvements that would support the Arctic Council's Arctic Marine Strategic Plan (2004). PAME carries out activities as set out in bi-annual work plans approved by the Arctic Council on the recommendation of the Senior Arctic Officials. These activities led by PAME include circumpolar and regional action programmes and guidelines complementing existing legal arrangements aimed at protection of the Arctic marine environment from both land and sea-based activities. The Permanent Participants (Indigenous Organizations) of the Arctic Council participate actively in the work of PAME. PAME works in close collaboration with the other five Arctic Council Working Groups.
The information system PANGAEA is operated as an Open Access library aimed at archiving, publishing and distributing georeferenced data from earth system research. The system guarantees long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Most of the data are freely available and can be used under the terms of the license mentioned on the data set description. A few password protected data sets are under moratorium from ongoing projects. The description of each data set is always visible and includes the principle investigator, who may be asked for access.
PARCA is a NASA project formally initiated in 1995 by combining into one coordinated program various investigations associated with efforts, started in 1991, to assess whether airborne laser altimetry could be applied to measure ice-sheet thickness changes. It has the prime goal of measuring and understanding the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet.
The PARCS program was the paleoenvironmental component of the NSF Arctic System Science program from 2000 - 2005. From the spring of 2001, PARCS had two specific research goals that are articulated in the ESH Call for proposals for FY 2003:
- Modes of climatic variability within the Arctic - Researchers will recover and synthesize a network of high-resolution (annual to decadal) Holocene paleoevironmental records that span at least 2,000 years and extend through the 20th century. This network will be used to address questions such as the periodicity and persistence of climatic states within the Arctic and their inter-relation with the global climate system.
- Warm Arctic climates and their consequence - Researchers will contribute to an understanding of a warmer Arctic by describing the state of marine, terrestrial, and biological systems during periods when the Arctic shifted toward and experienced warmer conditions in the past. Studies will focus on three well-known periods of warmer-than-present conditions: (a) intervals during the last two millennia, (b) other warm intervals of the current interglacial period (Holocene), and (c) the last interglaciation.
Pauktuutit fosters greater awareness of the needs of Inuit women, advocates for equity and social improvements, and encourages their participation in the community, regional and national life of Canada. Pauktuutit leads and supports Canadian Inuit women in policy development and community projects in all areas of interest to them, for the social, cultural, political and economic betterment of the women, their families and communities.
The Polar Climate Predictability Initiative (PCPI) is an initiative of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), whose goal is to improve the understanding of the predictability of climate and the effect of human activities on climate. The PCPI has a focus on polar regions and their role in the global climate system, and aims to improve predictability of the climate system on all time scales by improving our understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and their representation in climate models.
The Polar Conservation Organisation (PCO) is a registered non-profit foundation, committed to working with and engaging industry players, communicating and educating the public and pressuring government organisations in the development of the necessary social, political and economic frameworks to ensure a sustainable future for both Polar Regions. In order achieve this objective, the PCO has, and continues to, develop specific projects and programs that target these areas.
For centuries, the Canadian Arctic's remoteness, its stark cold beauty and its infinite mysteries have stimulated our collective curiosity and attracted scientists from around the world. Paradoxically, the very elements that make the Arctic so attractive can also make it seem an impenetrable and dangerous place in which to conduct research.
But over the past 50 years, the Polar Continental Shelf Program (PCSP) has been making that task easier for hundreds of scientists from around the world. Each year, Polar Shelf provides ground and air support services to approximately 130 scientific groups from more than 40 Canadian and international universities or government agencies. Scientific projects using PCSP's services cover every discipline, from archaeology to space science to zoology.
PEI is a vibrant network promoting polar education and research to a global community. By fostering dialogue and collaboration between educators and researchers, PEI aims to highlight and share the global relevance of the polar regions with the broader community. Join PEI to be a part of this growing global network!
Polar Educators International is a vital international network of educators and researchers aiming to provide a deeper understanding of current polar science. PEI represents trusted leaders working to inspire appreciation and knowledge of the polar regions, their connectedness to all Earth's systems, and importance to all humans across latitudes and cultures.
Understanding the Earth system is a huge task that no institution or country can tackle alone. PIK is part of a global network on questions of global environmental change. It closely collaborates with many international partners and is developing, together with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research in the U.K., a European perspective of sustainability science. PIK plays an active role in activities such as the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). As a member of the European Climate Forum (ECF), the Institute is in direct and continuous exchange with decision-makers from the economy, politics and civil society.
The Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) carries out interdisciplinary scientific investigations in oceanography and atmospheric science. Current PMEL programs focus on open ocean observations in support of long-term monitoring and prediction of the ocean environment on time scales from hours to decades. Studies are conducted to improve our understanding of the complex physical and geochemical processes operating in the world oceans, to define the forcing functions and processes driving ocean circulation and the global climate system, and to improve environmental forecasting capabilities and other supporting services for marine commerce and fisheries.
POAC is the acronym for the International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions. This conference addresses the unique issues related to coastal and offshore engineering in ice-covered waters. POAC began in 1971 in Trondheim, Norway, and since then, it has been held on a regular basis every two years at different international venues. Over the years, this conference has been the mainstay of Arctic engineering conferences and typically attracts over 150 participants to each conference.
The objective of POAC is to improve knowledge of ice-related problems by having scientists, technologists, and design and development engineers discuss and exchange ideas on relevant topics. In addition to personal communications, one major objective is to have other national and international organizations, industries, and research institutes engaged in work on the Arctic and Antarctic of interest to POAC, report their work at the POAC Conference.
POI FEB RAS – Pacific Oceanographical Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Scienceshttp://www.poi.dvo.ru/eng/index.html
Main fields of studies of the Pacific Oceanographical Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences include: Comprehensive hydrophysical, hydrochemical and hydrobiological studies of water masses in seas and oceans, their physical fields (acoustic, optical, electromagnetic, temperature), some parameters (sea wave, ocean currents, vortices, internal waves, ice cover, etc.), energy-mass exchange and the interaction of the ocean and atmosphere, marine ecosystems state; Studies of geology, geophysics and geochemistry of the Pacific Ocean and its mineral resources;
Development of new methods and creation of technical means to study the ocean and atmosphere, development and application of the remote control methods, creation and analysis of the oceanography data bases.
"Embedded" in the wilds of north Alaska, PolarArt Productions is on-location 24/7.
Based on an island in the Arctic Ocean, they produce natural history and documentary content available for broadcast, commercial, interpretive, and theatrical markets.
The National Committee on Polar Research serves as the Research Council’s strategic advisory committee on polar issues. It is a forum which informs and coordinates all research in Svalbard, and is chaired by the Research Council of Norway. The national committee reports to the Research Council of Norway through the Norwegian National Committee on Polar Research.
The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat is a government authority under the Ministry of Education and Research. Its task is to promote Swedish Polar research by organising and leading research expeditions to Antarctica and the Arctic, primarily as part of international efforts.
Polar Geography is a quarterly publication that offers a venue for scholarly research on the physical and human aspects of the Polar Regions. The journal seeks to address the component interplay of the natural systems, the complex historical, political, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and security issues, and the interchange amongst them. As such, the journal welcomes comparative approaches, critical scholarship, and alternative and disparate perspectives from around the globe. The journal offers scientists a venue for publishing longer papers such as might result from distillation of a thesis, or review papers that place in global context results from coordinated national and international efforts currently underway in both Polar Regions. The journal also offers a section for book reviews and invites such submissions or suggestions.
The Colloquy provides an international forum through which librarians, and others concerned with the collection, preservation, and dissemination of information dealing with the Arctic and Antarctic regions, discuss issues of mutual interest and promote initiatives leading to improved collections and services.
Membership provides great opportunities to network with colleagues in other institutions. From its origin, the fostering of greater international collaboration has been a central objective.
The Colloquy meets biennially at venues by tradition alternating between Europe and North America. It also maintains a website, an email discussion list, and a weblog.
This module is designed for anyone interested in the subject of polar meteorology. Some of the study questions within the module are geared toward upper-level undergraduate or graduate students majoring in meteorology, atmospheric science or related fields. However, anyone of high school age or older with some science background should find most of the module understandable.
The Director of the Department of Earth (DTA) and Environment has established, on November 6, 2006, the Operative Support Unit POLARNET with the aims to promote, coordinate and manage all activities within the PNRA (Italian National Research Program in Antarctica) and other research activities carried out in the Arctic. The UOS POLARNET is based in the research area of “Tor Vergata”, in the very same offices already used by the “Technical Structure of Polar Service” of the CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution. In 2009 PolarNet coordinated the activities related to the construction and testing of the “Amundsen-Nobile Climate Change Tower – CCT” and the necessary actions to update and make the Arctic Station “Dirigible Italia” operative, as to provide logistic support to the scientific personnel involved in the 2010 Research Campaign. Polarnet also provided support to the DTA in the organization of the Italo-Norwegian Commission event (January 27-28, 2010) and the conference “The Future of Research in the Arctic Regions” (March 26, 2010).
The Teachers and Researchers, Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC) program is a partnership between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States and VECO Polar Resources. PolarTREC is funded by the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs Arctic Sciences Section.
PolarTREC is a program in which K-12 teachers participate in arctic research, working closely with scientists, as a pathway to improving science education through teachers' experiences in scientific inquiry. PolarTREC builds on the outstanding scientific and cultural opportunities in Arctic research and education through intriguing topics that will engage students and the wider public. The core of the PolarTREC program is the field research experience, whereby PolarTREC teachers participate in arctic field research for two or more weeks during the spring or summer. Teachers and researchers then connect with classrooms and the public through the use of various internet tools, real-time presentations and calls from the field. PolarTREC further provides professional development opportunities for teachers and supports a sustained community of teachers, scientists and the public.
PolarTREC is closely linked to PolarConnect (formerly known as Live from IPY!), which transports students and the public to remote polar locations to learn about exciting polar science through real-time Internet presentations from the field.
Polar View is an earth observation (EO) or satellite remote-sensing program, focused on both the Arctic and the Antarctic. Polar View is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission with participation from the Canadian Space Agency. It promotes the utilization of satellites for public good and in support of public policy in the areas of sustainable economic development, marine safety, and the environment. The Polar View Team consists of companies, government agencies and research institutes across Europe and Canada and is likely the most experienced and comprehensive group in the world of polar EO experts. Each organization brings diverse and complementary skills to the Polar View program and is committed to establishing a dedicated service for addressing polar issues using earth observation technologies. Polar View has participants from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
Polarworld is a small, independent publishing company and consultancy that specialises in producing exquisite, highly-illustrated books about all aspects of polar, maritime and wilderness environments.
In addition, we are writers and editors for our international publishing partners; we organise events, motivational workshops and exhibitions, give talks about the people and culture of the polar regions, and act as consultants on polar and maritime history for film-makers who benefit from our intimate knowledge of these areas.
The Polar Earth Observatory Network, or POLENET, is a recently proposed GPS/Seismic network, aimed at observing the Antarctic glaciologic and geologic system using a multidisciplinary and internationally-coordinated approach. An observatory-style backbone network of 18 co-located, continuously-recording GPS and broadband seismic sites across West Antarctica, as well as a 2-3 year GPS and seismic "IPY-only" deployment has been proposed. The co-location of GPS and seismic sensors provides important science synergies and significant logistical advantages. Cooperation of the GPS and seismic PIs, UNAVCO, and IRIS will allow development and deployment of the next-generation power and communication systems optimized for remote deployments in extreme environments.
Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface (POLES) is an EOS interdisciplinary project investigating the exchange of mass and energy at the air-ice-ocean interface in the polar regions. The POLES program is located at the Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington.
The quarterly Polish Polar Research, edited by the Committee on Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, is an international journal publishing original research articles presenting the results of studies carried out in polar regions. All papers are peer-reviewed and published in English.
The Reindeer Herders’ Association works as a link between the cooperatives, and its Administrative Board has 16 members. The Association’s annual general meeting of representatives, the Reindeer Parliament, is held at the beginning of June.
The role of the Reindeer Herders’ Association is to direct reindeer husbandry, develop reindeer herding, promote research into it, and to handle reindeer husbandry relations with the rest of society. The Association also publishes literature, including the Poromies [Reindeer Herder] periodical.
The Polar Postal History Society of Great Britain (PPHSGB) was founded in 1952 by our current President Harry Evans. Over the years the Society has added to the initial area of collecting of the Heroic Age / Classic Polar Exploration (which includes Scott’s and Shackleton’s expeditions) to incorporate not only more modern postal history but also postcards, new issues, Cinderella and thematic collecting. The Society now boasts a membership of about 300 worldwide, and recent auction realisations confirm Polar Philately retains a strong following.
The aims of the Society are to promote the general study of the Postal History of the Polar and Sub-Polar regions and to act as a medium whereby collectors of this material may correspond, exchange and acquire items for their collections and to obtain information about these areas.
The PPP is a long-term initiative by the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) together with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and participation of research centres, universities, institutions and initiatives from all over the world. The overall aim is to understand and evaluate predictability and enhance prediction information and services in polar regions.
The Polar Research Board (PRB) has a long history of distinguished service to the polar community. First established in 1958, the PRB exists to promote excellence in polar science and to provide independent scientific guidance to federal agencies and the nation on science issues in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and cold regions in general. The PRB strives to:
- make research in the polar regions more productive and responsive to the needs of the United States,
- maintain U.S. awareness of, and representation in, international science programs, and
- enhance understanding of issues in polar regions.
This page serves as the index page for a series of documents that provide an overview of the prehistory of Alaska, and for another set of documents that briefly describe the cultural resources (archaeology, history, ethnography) in each national park and preserve in the state.
Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC) was founded in 1989. The institute coordinates Chinese polar research and makes available to national polar researchers the important infrastructure, e.g. the research ice breaker “Xuelong” and research stations in the Arctic and Antarctic. It carries out international cooperation and academic exchange activities.
PRIC is the Chinese research center in the field of comprehensive studies of the polar region. The institute is in charge of Key Laboratory of Polar Science of the State Oceanic Administration. Research at the institute focuses on: polar glaciology, polar oceanographic science, polar upper atmospheric physics, polar biological science and polar information platform. The institute has established Polar Snow Ice and Global Change Laboratory, Ionospheric Physics Laboratory, Auroral and Magnetospheric Physics Laboratory, Polar Organism Analytical Laboratory, Microorganism and Molecular Biology Analytical Laboratory, Biochemistry Analytical Laboratory, Polar Microbe Culture Collection and Shipboard Laboratory. National Field Research Stations have been established at Antarctic Great Wall Station and Zhongshan Station, and they are the research bases of Antarctic snow ice and space environment.
PROFC – Laboratorio de Procesos Oceanograficos y Clima (The Laboratory for Oceanographic Processes and Climate)http://www.profc.udec.cl/
The Laboratory for Oceanographic Processes and Climate (PROFC) is a research group devoted to the scientific study of the ocean and its relation with climate. The Laboratory was formed in 1997, originally as the Program for Regional Studies in Physical Oceanography and Climate, under the direction of the Research Council of the University of Concepcion and with the support of the Swedish International Development Agency-SIDA and the Fundacion Andes.
PROFC has researchers from the Department of Oceanography within the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Oceanography and the Department of Geophysics within the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, as well as postdoctoral fellows, engineers, technicians, graduate students and administrative personnel. The research areas of this interdisciplinary group are physical oceanography, physical-biological coupling, biogeochemistry, microbial oceanography, and climate. PROFC also offers services in CTD calibration, isotope analysis and development of oceanographic instruments.
The Polar Rock Repository is a national facility constructed adjacent to Scott Hall, home of the Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University. It is supported by the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs. The repository houses rock samples from Antarctica, the Arctic, southern South America and South Africa. The polar rock collection and database includes field notes, photos, maps, cores, powder and mineral residues, thin sections, as well as microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. Rock samples may be borrowed for research by university scientists from anywhere in the world. Samples may also be borrowed for educational or museum use in the United States. Visitors are welcome at the PRR by appointment.
The Polar Science Center is a group of dedicated investigators conducting interdisciplinary research on the oceanography, climatology, meteorology, biology and ecology of the ice-covered regions on Earth and elsewhere in the solar system.
Since 1989 we have facilitated and conducted research and education programs to increase our understanding of the Prince William Sound and Copper River Delta ecosystems. These programs emphasize the long-term diversity, and health and sustainability of resources upon which local people depend, while also serving a multitude of stakeholders in the broader region.
PWSSC is taking a leading role in understanding ecological change in a world where shifts in atmospheric and ocean climate threaten livelihoods and pose difficult problems for those managing and enhancing the planet’s important living resources.
The Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN) is an international organization established under the patronage of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) fostering innovative collaboration, seeking to recruit, retain and promote future generations of permafrost researchers. Initiated during the 4th International Polar Year (IPY), PYRN directs the multi-disciplinary talents of its membership toward global awareness, knowledge and response to permafrost-related challenges in a changing climate. PYRN was officially founded in November 2005 at the International Conference on Arctic Planning and grew steadily since then to now reach 931 permafrost researchers and educators in the world on behalf of the International Permafrost Association (IPA). It built partnerships with large organizations such as Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) and the IPA, and got acknowledged by the International Polar Year (IPY) as an official activity.
There are no acronyms beginning with Q
To facilitate collaborative research between Russian and American scientists in order to understand processes and events in terrestrial, shelf, and ocean environments in northern Eurasia in the context of a globally changing environment. RAISE was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research over a 10-year period as a mechanism to improve U.S. - Russian scientific collaborations in the Russian Arctic.
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation, as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy is incorporated as a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia.
Founded in 1830, the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) is dedicated to the development and promotion of geographical knowledge, together with its application to the challenges facing society and the environment. Based in the UK.
The Russian Geographical Society is the oldest scientific organization in Russia that has been uniting professional geographers and other scientists, public figures and geography buffs since 1845. Today the Society plays a vital role in developing Russian science and education, promoting ecogeographical knowledge and supporting principles of sustainable development in Russia.
Website hosts: temperature records for the last 250 years at over 1100 selected worldwide locations; carbon dioxide emissions since 1950 for 150 countries; ice data time series for harbours, rivers and lakes on three continents.
Anyone with a genuine interest in weather and climate can join the Royal Meteorological Society. The Society is made up of enthusiasts, practitioners, students and scientists from around the world and is based in the UK.
The Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS) is a learned society and educational charity founded in 1884 and based in Perth. The Society has a membership of 2500 and aims to advance the science of geography worldwide by supporting education, research, expeditions, through its journal (the Scottish Geographical Journal), its newsletter (The Geographer) and other publications.
The RVSMDC, located at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies on the campus of the Florida State University, collects, quality-controls, archives, and distributes surface meteorological observations from research vessels operated by the United States and the international community. Available data include observations made by nearly-continuous automated recording systems and ship bridge crews. We specialize in the quality evaluation of high-temporal resolution observations from shipboard automated meteorological and oceanographic systems (SAMOS).
The Saami Council (Northern Sami: Sámiráđđi) is an umbrella organization for Sámi organizations in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. The Saami Council was founded during the 2nd Sámi Conference held in Karasjok, Norway on 18 August 18 1956 as the Nordic Saami Council. After the first Russian Sámi organization was accepted as a member in 1992, however, the word Nordic was dropped from the official name. The Saami Council has a Permanent Participant status on the Arctic Council. The Council Secretariat is located in Utsjoki, Finland.
The Sami Parliament of Finland (Finnish: Saamelaiskäräjät, Northern Sami: Sámediggi) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Finland. Some of the responsibilities of the Finnish Sámi Parliament include matters related to the languages and culture of the Sámi, and also their status as an indigenous people. The Finnish Sámi Parliament distributes the funds it receives, and can also sponsor bills and release statements on matters that fall under its jurisdiction. The Finnish Sámi Parliament is a separate branch of the Ministry of Justice and is an independent legal body subject to public law with its own governing body, accountants and auditors. The parliament has working groups for education and education material, Sami livelihood and rights, culture, social issues and health, elections, and the Sami language.
The Sami Parliament of Norway (Norwegian: Sametinget, Northern Sami: Sámediggi) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Norway. It acts as an institution of cultural autonomy for the indigenous Sami people. The Parliament was opened on 9 October 1989, and works on political issues it considers relevant or of interest to the Sami people. The responsibilities of the Sami Parliament in Norway are: "(1) to serve as the Sámis’ elected political body to promote political initiatives and (2) to carry out the administrative tasks delegated from national authorities or by law to the Sámi Parliament."
The Sami Parliament of Sweden (Swedish: Sametinget, Northern Sami: Sámediggi) is the representative body for people of Sami heritage in Sweden. It acts as an institution of cultural autonomy for the indigenous Sami people. Sweden has taken action to recognise the Sami minority as an indigenous people and to distinguish them from other minorities, and to raise the Sami minority influence which comes into conflict with the European majority democracy system.
The SAC is a group of enthusiasts with a common interest in the Arctic regions. The Club was founded in 1970. Many members have been on expeditions to the arctic and have travelled extensively there. The main activities of the Club are the Annual Gathering and Supper, the Spring Meet, the Award of Expedition Grants and the distribution of three Newsletters each year. Our meetings are held in Scotland but our members also come from England, Wales and Ireland as well as many other countries such as Alaska, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Iceland and Switzerland.
The Library has been transferred to the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS). Members can consult the Scottish Arctic Club Library, and the Erskine Library, in the Shackleton room of the RSGS premises in Perth (Lord John Murray House).
South Africa is one of the founding members of the Antarctic Treaty, who together with 11 other countries signed the Treaty in 1959. All signatories of the Treaty agree that the Antarctic Continent will be used for peaceful and scientific purposes only. Subsequently, South Africa became a party to various other conventions, treaties and agreements pertaining to Antarctica. It is the only African country with a presence in Antarctica, as well as being a member country of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR).
The Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) process was initiated by the Arctic Council (AC) and has been underway since early 2007. The initial background work for SAON was done by the SAON Steering Group (SAON-SG), and with the first meeting of the Board in January 2012, SAON was formally established. Its purpose is to support and strengthen the development of multinational engagement for sustained and coordinated pan-Arctic observing and data sharing systems that serve societal needs, particularly related to environmental, social, economic and cultural issues. SAON promotes the vision of well-defined observing networks that enable users to have access to free, open and high quality data that will realize pan-Arctic and global value-added services and provide societal benefits. Its goal is to enhance Arctic-wide observing activities by facilitating partnerships and synergies among existing observing and data networks (“building blocks”), and promoting sharing and synthesis of data and information. SAON also is committed to facilitating the inclusion of Arctic indigenous people in observing activities, in particular by promoting community-based monitoring (CBM) efforts.
SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is a committee of the International Council for Science (ICSU), and it is charged with the initiation, promotion and co-ordination of scientific research in Antarctica. SCAR also provides international, independent scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty system and other bodies. The membership of SCAR comprises the appropriate bodies of those national scientific academies or research councils which are the adhering bodies to ICSU, and which are, or plan to be, active in Antarctic research, together with the relevant scientific unions of ICSU.
SCOR is the leading international non-governmental organization for the promotion and coordination of international oceanographic activities. SCOR does not have the resources to fund research directly; therefore, SCOR science activities focus on promoting international cooperation in planning and conducting oceanographic research, and solving methodological and conceptual problems that hinder research. Scientists from the thirty-six nations participate in SCOR working groups and scientific steering committees for the large-scale ocean research projects.
SGWG is a working group of the Arctic Council. Consistent with the overall work and priorities of the Arctic Council, the SDWG carries out projects and activities, as approved by the Arctic Council Senior Arctic Officials, in the following thematic areas: arctic human health, arctic socio-economic issues, adaptation to climate change, energy and arctic communities, management of natural resources and arctic cultures and languages.
SEARCH is an interagency effort to understand the nature, extent, and future development of the system-scale change presently seen in the Arctic. These changes are occurring across terrestrial, oceanic, atmospheric and human systems, including:
- increased air temperatures over most of the Arctic;
- changing ocean circulation and rising coastal sea level;
- reduced sea ice cover; and
- thawing permafrost.
The Antarctic Treaty operated without any continuing institution until 1 September 2004, when the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established and based in Buenos Aires. Under the direction of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM), the Secretariat carries out the tasks specified in Measure 1 (2003), which can be summarized under the following headings:
- Supporting the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting and the meeting of the Committee for Environmental Protection.
- Facilitating the exchange of information between the Parties required in the Treaty and the Environment Protocol.
- Collecting, storing, archiving and making available the documents of the ATCM.
- Providing and disseminating information about the Antarctic Treaty system and Antarctic activities.
Sermitsiaq (Greenlandic for Saddle Mountain) is one of two national newspapers in Greenland. The newspaper is published every Friday, while the online version is updated several times daily. The newspaper was published for the first time on 21 May 1958 as a Kalaallisut language alternative to the Danish language newspaper Mikken, which eventually closed in November of the same year. Sermitsiaq was a local newspaper distributed only in Nuuk until around 1980 when the newspaper became national. The newspaper became increasingly political in the period around 1980, after Greenland was granted home rule in 1979.
This network is part of the Canadian Social Economy Hub, a national research program funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada with six regional networks and a national centre and facilitator. This node serves as the social economy research sector for Northern Canada. It is built around the three Northern Territorial Colleges and their respective research institutions, and links researchers working in the North with Northern students, community organizations, and educational institutions. The network involves a number of University partners providing research expertise and direction for the 4 main research themes of the program. In addition to research seeking to conceptualize and inventory the social economy in the North, the network will investigate the particular relationships that exist between social economy and indigenous cultures, resource regimes, and the state.
Siku Circumpolar News Service is the circumpolar world's first Web-based news service. Its founders, professional journalists Jane George and Inga Hansen, come from northern Canada and Greenland and between them speak five circumpolar languages. SIKU offers a great news round-up with voices from the North that you won’t find elsewhere.
Networking scientists and stakeholders to improve sea ice prediction in a changing Arctic.
The WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF engages in research, scientific services, teaching and public relations, focusing on snow, the atmosphere, natural hazards, permafrost and mountain ecosystems.
The SLF's employees are active in both basic and applied research. The objective of their work is to develop practical instruments for public authorities, industry and the general public, which can be used, for example, to manage the risk associated with natural hazards or analyse climatic and environmental changes.
In close connection with its research activities, the SLF also offers a range of services. These include consulting, expert opinions on avalanche accidents and avalanche protection, and the development of warning systems for natural hazards in the Alps. The best-known service is the avalanche bulletin or warning report for the Swiss Alps, which is published twice daily in wintertime.
Founded in 1846, the Smithsonian is the world's largest museum and research complex, consisting of 19 museums and galleries, the National Zoological Park and nine research facilities. The Smithsonian Institution is home to nine research centers and numerous research programs which also look at Polar Regions. These programs include terrestrial geophysics and the remote sensing of environmental change. Other programs are dedicated to understanding the patterns and mechanisms of change in ocean environments.
Snowchange was started in late 2000 to document and work with local and Indigenous communities of the Northern regions. Snowchange is an organisation unlike any other in Finland or in the Circumpolar North – we are Finns devoted to the advancement of our traditions and culture. We hold the traditional knowledge, stories, handicrafts, fishing and hunting and other elements of our forest culture sacred. Snowchange Cooperative is also a network of local and Indigenous cultures around the world – our partners include the Saami, Chukchi, Yukaghir, Inuit, Inuvialuit, Inupiaq, Gwitchin, Icelandic, Maori, Australian Aboriginal and many other local and Indigenous peoples and communities.
Snowchange Cooperative works with the Arctic Council, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Assessment, the National Science Foundation of USA, and several universities and partners on questions of biodiversity, climate change and local communities. In the past 10 years Snowchange has developed into a major force in international climate and indigenous policy and research.
The Society for Marine Mammology was founded in 1981 as a non-profit organization. The society’s objectives are to:
- Evaluate and promote the educational, scientific and managerial advancement of marine mammal science.
- Gather and disseminate to members of the Society, the public, and public and private institutions, scientific, technical and management information through publications and meetings.
- Provide scientific information, as required, on matters related to the conservation and management of marine mammal resources.
Just north of the Arctic Circle and 100 km inland from the west coast of Greenland lies a research facility dedicated to studying the polar upper atmosphere. For historical reasons, this research station is known around the world as the Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The facility is operated by SRI International in Menlo Park, California, under the auspices of the U.S. National Science Foundation and in joint cooperation with Denmark's Meteorological Institute. The facility has been operating in Greenland since 1983 and continues to be in high demand by the scientific communities. This facility is host to more than 20 instruments, the majority of which provide unique and complementary information about the arctic upper atmosphere. Together these instruments advance our knowledge of upper atmospheric physics and determine how the tenuous neutral gas interacts with the charged space plasma environment. The suite of instrumentation supports many disciplines of research, from plate tectonics to auroral physics and space weather.
The Southern Ocean provides the principal connection between the Earth's ocean basins and between the upper and lower layers of the global ocean circulation. As a result, the Southern Ocean strongly influences climate patterns and the cycling of carbon and nutrients. Changes in the Southern Ocean would therefore have global ramifications. However, the short and incomplete nature of existing time series makes the causes and consequences of observed changes difficult to assess. Sustained, multi-disciplinary observations are required to detect, interpret and respond to change.
SOOS is a new international project that started in August of 2011. It is sponsored by SCOR and SCAR with the International Project Office hosted by the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania. The mission of the SOOS is to establish a multidisciplinary observing system to deliver the sustained observations of the Southern Ocean that are needed to address key challenges of scientific and societal relevance, including climate change, sea-level rise and the impacts of global change on marine ecosystems.
SPARC is a core project of the World Climate Research Programme which coordinates international efforts to bring knowledge of the stratosphere to bear on relevant issues in climate variability and prediction * SPARC themes and activities address areas of societal concern such as: Climate variability and change, ozone, atmospheric chemistry and aerosols and polar processes.
The Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) is part of the University of Cambridge, and is a sub-department of the Department of Geography. Several research groups at SPRI investigate a range of issues in both the environmental sciences and social sciences that are relevant to the Arctic and Antarctic.
SPRI offers two Graduate Degree courses; a one-year Master's Degree (M.Phil.) course in Polar Studies, and a three-year Doctoral Degree course leading to a Ph.D. degree. Both courses are closely tied to the research activities of the Institute.
SRI International is an independent, nonprofit research institute conducting client-sponsored research and development for government agencies, commercial businesses, foundations, and other organizations. SRI also brings its innovations to the marketplace by licensing its intellectual property and creating new ventures.
The Svalbard Science Forum (SSF) is a forum which informs and coordinates all research in Svalbard, and is chaired by the Research Council of Norway. SSF provides overviews of infrastructure, information about logistics, research bases, and application processes for permits and permissions. Our objective is to contribute to the development of Svalbard as a platform for arctic research in accordance with our strategic policy documents. SSF promotes cooperation between the different institutions in Svalbard, but is not involved in the internal affairs of these institutions. SSF invites everyone who is planning research projects in Svalbard to contact us either by e-mail, phone or by visiting the office on the 2nd floor of the Svalbard Science Centre.
StudioPolar is a National Science Foundation initiative that examines the work of consultant expertise in stabilizing perspectives on arctic natural gas development. The research is a comparative study of North American (U.S. and Canada) and European (Russia and Norway) interpretations of energy systems development.
The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat is a government authority under the Ministry of Education and Research. Its task is to promote Swedish Polar research by organising and leading research expeditions to Antarctica and the Arctic, primarily as a part of international efforts.
TAO is a Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) project which delivers real-time data from moored ocean buoys for improved detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño and La Niña. The TAO project coordinates a multinational effort to maintain an array of moored buoys across the Pacific Basin. The array took ten years to built and was completed in 1994. PMEL's TAO Project has partnered with other institutions in the design and implementation of the Ocean Sustained Interdisciplinary Timeseries Environment observation System (OceanSITES), a worldwide network of deep water reference stations providing high temporal resolution data in real time for ocean research and environmental forecasting.
Tara Expeditions is a non-profit program directed by Etienne Bourgois, chief executive officer of Agnès b, a French fashion brand. It was initiated in 2003, thanks to the brand’s founder and her determination to commit herself to the planet’s remediation. Tara Oceans is its current expedition. Tara’s voyages are dedicated to scientific research on the impact of global warming on the oceans, with two basic objectives:
1) to serve as a platform for scientific research by exploring previously unreachable ocean locations, and
2) to raise public awareness of scientific & environmental ocean characteristics, through ongoing reports on its adventurous voyages.
A program supported by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The mission of the TAS program is to give teachers a clearer insight into our ocean planet, a greater understanding of maritime work and studies, and to increase their level of environmental literacy by fostering an interdisciplinary research experience. The program provides a unique environment for learning and teaching by sending teachers to sea aboard NOAA research and survey ships to work under the tutelage of scientists and crew.
TEA is a former (until 2005) program for K-12 teachers to participate in a polar expedition. The TEA teacher worked closely with scientists, participated in cutting-edge research, and was immersed in the process of science. Enveloping this field experience was a diversity of professional development opportunities through which TEA teachers increased content knowledge, enhanced teaching skills, transferred the experience to the classroom, assumed leadership roles, and collaborated with a network of researchers and education colleagues. The website still contains useful links and articles for any teacher interested in polar sciences.
The Toolik Field Station (TFS), run by the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, is a world-renowned Arctic climate change research station located in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in Alaska. Toolik-based researchers have access to 87,000 acres designated as a Research Natural Area by the Bureau of Land Management. Our location allows scientists access to three major physiographic provinces of Alaska: the Brooks Range, the arctic foothills, and the arctic coastal plain. Toolik Field Station has been a major location for scientific research in the Arctic since 1975.
The Environmental Data Center (EDC) at TFS works directly with scientists and administrators for the advancement of research. The EDC supports the science community by:
- establishing the environmental and biological context wherein scientists can interpret their own research,
- managing a suite of common-use laboratory and field equipment during the main field season,
- providing limited assistance with field work.
This is a web resource on human-environment relationships in the Arctic. It looks at the natural environment of the Arctic, and examines the Arctic as a homeland to people and cultures. Related case studies and topics are also listed.
The Transport and Effects Programmes are management-orientated research programs addressing the problem of pollution in the Northern Seas. They expanded the knowledge base needed to design and implement monitoring programs and assessed the effects of continuous and acute emissions on the environment. All projects under these programs were terminated in fall 2004, but the data collected continue to have relevance in current projects.
The overall objectives of the transport programs were to:
- provide Norwegian authorities with reliable knowledge on oceanic contaminant pathways of significance for the Barents Sea, and on sources and processes affecting the transport of contaminants in the Barents and Kara seas, and;
- to provide the Norwegian authorities with reliable knowledge on the flux of contaminants in Arctic marine food chains and their effect on Arctic marine ecosystems. This also included the potential effect on humans.
THORPEX is a Norwegian research program contributing to the WMO Natural Disaster Reduction and Mitigation Program. THORPEX is a 10-year international research and development program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of one-day to two-week high impact weather forecasts for the benefit of society, the economy and the environment.
THORPEX establishes an organizational framework that addresses weather research and forecasts problems whose solutions will be accelerated through international collaboration among academic institutions, operational forecast centres and users of forecast products.
The IPY- THORPEX cluster is a group of THORPEX projects relating to the International Polar Year. The IPY- THORPEX cluster currently comprises an international cooperation between 10 individual IPY projects from 9 countries with the following main objectives:
- To explore the use of satellite data and optimized observations to improve high impact weather forecasts
- To better understand physical/dynamical processes in polar regions
- To achieve a better understanding of small scale weather phenomena
- To utilize improved forecasts to the benefit of society, the economy and the environment
- To utilize the THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) of weather forecasts for polar prediction.
Thule Institute is a multidisciplinary research centre in the field of environmental issues, natural resources and materials; one of the areas of focus of the University of Oulu. The Thule Institute has four operational units: the Centre for Arctic Medicine, NorNet, NorTech Oulu, and the Oulanka research station.
There are three multidisciplinary research programs: Global Change in the North, Northern Land Use and Land Cover, and Circumpolar Health and Wellbeing. The research programs are implemented jointly with different departments in the University of Oulu, other universities, research institutes and the business sector. The Thule Institute also plans and promotes basic and post-graduate studies within the area of focus.
The Institute takes part in work on national and international research strategies aimed at focusing research and teaching into areas that are important and topical from the point of view of society. The Institute also arranges seminars and courses, and provides information on northern and environmental issues.
This web page, endorsed by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission (AEWC) is designed to provide information about indigenous subsistence whaling in the Western Arctic in a historical context that extends from pre- European contact to the present. The focus is on the traditional whaling practices of northern Alaskan communities, and on the environmental conditions in which whaling has taken - and continues to take - place. This site is intended to provide information to a wide range of audiences, including people living in the Arctic, students, the general public, and people conducting research in the North.
The Tuktu and Nogak Project is a community driven effort to collect and share Inuit Quajimatajatuqangit, or traditional ecological knowledge, of caribou and calving areas in the Bathurst Inlet area of the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut, Canada. The Tuktu and Nogak Project recognizes the value of Inuit contributions to better understanding caribou, and celebrates the richness of Inuit Quajimajatuqangit. Through the Tuktu and Nogak Project, it is hoped that Inuit Quajimajatuqangit will be easily available to current and future generations.
This project resulted in a book called “Thunder on the Tundra: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit of the Bathurst Caribou”. It details the many stories and drawings gathered through the Tuktu and Nogak Project. Based on more than 37 interviews, this chronicle provides a fascinating view into the world of caribou as understood by Inuit from the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut.