Who's Who in Polar Science - Acronyms Decoded and Defined
We all know there are loads of acronyms in Polar Science and its often hard to remember what they all stand for. Thanks to a few dedicated APECS members we are happy to share this Who's Who of Polar Science list. Have fun learning about the many neat areas of polar science and if there are things that aren't on this list, just let us know and we'll be happy to add them!A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
AAA - Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica
A Scientific Research Programme Planning Group of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines.
AAC - Arctic Athabaskan Council
The Arctic Athabaskan Council (AAC) is an international treaty organization established to defend the rights and further the interests internationally of American and Canadian Athabaskan member First Nation governments in the eight-nation Arctic Council and other international fora. AAC is an authorized "Permanent Participant" in the Arctic Council. In addition, AAC seeks to foster a greater understanding of the shared heritage of Athabaskan peoples of Arctic North America.
AAD - Australian Antarctic Divisionhttp://www.antarctica.gov.au/
The Australian Antarctic Division leads Australia's Antarctic program. The AAD carries out research, provides logistical support to scientists, and maintains all-year stations on Macquarie Island (54.30'S; 158.56'E) and at Casey (66.17'S; 77.58'E), Davis (68.35'S; 110.32'E) and Mawson (67.36'S; 62.52'E) on Antarctica. Also operates research vessel Aurora Australis. As a division of the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, their charter is to ensure Australia's Antarctic interests are advanced. Under its charter the AAD:
- administers the Australian Antarctic Territory and the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
- conducts research in high priority areas of Antarctic science
- coordinates and manages Australia's logistic program in Antarctica
- promotes Antarctic research in universities through grants and the provision of logistic support
- develops policy proposals and provides advice on Australia's Antarctic interests
- promotes Australia's Antarctic interests within the Antarctic Treaty System
- maintains a continuing presence in the region through permanent stations, the establishment of field bases and the provision of transport, communication and medical services
- acts as the primary source of Australian Antarctic information
AADC - Australian Antarctic Data Centrehttp://data.aad.gov.au/
The mandates of the Australian Antarctic Data Centre are as follows:
- Manage science data from Australia's Antarctic research (acquire, index, store, disseminate, link and 'mine')
- Map Australia's areas of interest in the Antarctic region
- Manage Australia's Antarctic state of the environment reporting
- Fabricate, install and manage Australia's Antarctic station tide gauges
- Provide advice and education and a range of other products
AAEPF - Association Amicale des Expéditions Polaires Françaises (Association of French Polar Expeditions)
Le site WEB de l'AAEPF (Association Amicale des Expéditions Polaires Françaises) a un triple objectif:
- diffuser les informations concernant la vie de l'AAEPF et celle des EPF pour vous permettre d'y participer.
- donner des nouvelles sur les activités polaires et en particulier sur celles organisées par l'IPEV et les TAAF. Dans ce but, nous demanderons aux acteurs du terrain de s'exprimer et de nous faire parvenir des documents. Ils vous permettront de mieux apprécier les réalisations actuelles et les évolutions par rapport aux époques antérieures.
- faciliter l'accès à l'Histoire et aux petites histoires des expéditions polaires à travers la présentation de récits et de documents ainsi que par la constitution d'une bibliographie polaire reprenant entre autres les ouvrages disponibles à la boutique.
AARI - Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute**website available in
Located in St. Petersburg, AARI is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica. The State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute belongs to the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. Organized in 1920, AARI is the oldest and the largest Russian research institution in the field of comprehensive studies of the Polar Regions.
AAS - Arbeitsgemeinschaft Arktis und Subarktis (Working Group Arctic and Subarctic)www.sub-arctic.ac.at
The working group is a network of academics who share a passion and interest for the arctic and subarctic regions of North America, Europe and Russia. They aim to disseminate scientific and popular topics on the North to a wider, mostly German speaking, public. They are "speakers" for the people of the North and want to spread information on their social, political, environmental and cultural concerns. For this purpose they organize public events such as conferences, exhibitions, film nights, and round tables.
ABC - Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (Brazilian Academy of Science)www.abc.org.br (Portuguese)
Academic body publishing the scientific results of the national Antarctic programme in special issues of Anais.
AC - Arctic Centre (Arktinen Keskus)**website available in
The Arctic Centre at the University of Lapland is a national research institute and science centre. The Arctic Centre conducts and conveys internationally recognised, multidisciplinary research concerning Arctic issues, and it trains experts on Arctic issues and conveys information and research results concerning the region. The research, carried out throughout the Arctic and Antarctic, blends the perspectives of the natural and social sciences, and the Centre's multidisciplinary research groups study the social and environmental impacts of global and climate change as well as sustainable development and environmental and minority law.
AC - Arctic Council
The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum. The members are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden, and the United States of America. The scientific work of the Arctic Council is carried out in six expert working groups focusing on such issues as monitoring, assessing and preventing pollution in the Arctic, climate change, biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, emergency preparedness and prevention in addition to the living conditions of the Arctic residents.
Academia Colombiana de Cienciashttp://www.accefyn.org.co (Spanish)
National Associate Member of SCAR.
ACAP - Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrelshttp://www.acap.aq/
ACAP is a multilateral agreement which seeks to conserve albatrosses and petrels by coordinating international activity to mitigate known threats to albatross and petrel populations. ACAP came into force in February 2004 and currently has 13 member countries and covers 29 species of albatrosses and petels.
ACAP - Arctic Contaminants Action Planhttp://acap.arctic-council.org/
Working group of the Arctic Council which was formally given working group status at the Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting in Salekhard, Russia in October 2006. Prior to that it had operated as a steering committee called the Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution in the Arctic with a mandate to increase efforts to limit and reduce emissions of pollutants into the environment and promote international cooperation. The goal of ACAP continues to be to reduce emissions of pollutants into the environment in order to reduce the identified pollution risks. ACAP also encourages national actions for Arctic State governments to take remedial and preventive actions relating to contaminants and other releases of pollutants. ACAP acts as a strengthening and supporting mechanism to encourage national actions to reduce emissions and other releases of pollutants.
ACBio - Arctic Coastal Biodiversityhttp://web.arcticportal.org/iasc/science-development/iasc-projects
The Arctic Coastal Biodiversity (ACBio) project highlights a suite of pressing environmental issues in the circum-Arctic, and is designed for the assessment of biodiversity and biodiversity modeling to address these issues. Project deliverables include on-line databases, habitat maps, biodiversity assessments and biological community models, recommended approaches to scenario building, and guidelines for Arctic coastal zone management. ACBio is organized as a project that applies fundamental interdisciplinary science to a series of pressing conservation and management needs.
ACCO-NET - Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Networkhttp://www.polarjahr.de/ACCO-Net.84+M52087573ab0.0.html
The Arctic coastal zone is sensitive to changes in marine, atmospheric, and terrestrial systems. The international effort to align coastal observations in the Arctic is led by the Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network (ACCO-Net). ACCO-Net includes a network of key sites setup by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) project of the IASC, and 17 International Polar Year (IPY) projects from around the Arctic. ACCO-Net provides three categories of support to an SAON: 1) a network of regional experts responsible for running observations; 2) historical and current data in an Arctic circumpolar GIS database; and 3) a catalogue of site characteristics based on remotely sensed products.
ACD - Arctic Coastal Dynamicshttp://web.arcticportal.org/acd
The Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-national forum to exchange ideas and information. The overall objective of ACD is to improve our understanding of circum-Arctic coastal dynamics as a function of environmental forcing, coastal geology and cryology and morphodynamic behavior.
ACE - Antarctic Climate Evolutionhttp://www.csam.montclair.edu/earth/eesweb/scar_ace/
ACE is an international research initiative that has grown out of the ANTOSTRAT (ANTarctic Offshore STRATigraphy) project. ANTOSTRAT originated in 1990 as an offshoot project of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Group of Specialists on the Evolution of Cenozoic Paleoenvironments of the Southern High Latitudes. The ANTOSTRAT program officially came to an end in July 2002. The goal of ACE is to continue the study of Antarctic climate and glacial history through paleoclimate and ice sheet modeling studies, purposefully integrated with geological investigations of the proxy record of ancient Antarctic climates and ice sheets. ACE is now an official SCAR program.
ACE CRC - Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centrehttp://www.acecrc.org.au/index.cgi
ACE CRC leads Australia's effort to understand the roles of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the global climate system and climate change. ACE CRC research focuses on projecting future changes in sea level, understanding the ocean's processing of greenhouse gases and managing marine ecosystems, as well as analysing the policy implications of their science.
ACIA - Arctic Climate Impact Assessmenthttp://www.acia.uaf.edu/
An international project of the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), to evaluate and synthesize knowledge on climate variability, climate change, and increased ultraviolet radiation and their consequences. The results of the assessment were released at the ACIA International Scientific Symposium held in Reykjavik, Iceland in November 2004.
ACRC - Alaska Climate Research Centerhttp://climate.gi.alaska.edu/
The Alaska Climate Research Center is a research and service organization at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. ACRC conducts research focusing on Alaska and polar regions climatology and archives climatological data for Alaska. The primary mission of this center is to respond to inquiries concerning the meteorology and climatology of Alaska from public, private, and government agencies, and from researchers around the world. ACRC provides services within the three tiered system (state, regional, and federal).
ACUNS - Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studieshttp://www.acuns.ca/
Representing a significant resource of academic expertise and experience, the Association plays a key role in training the next generation of northern researchers through a variety of ways. ACUNS' mandate is to:
- represent the interests of member universities and colleges by encouraging government and private sector policies and practices that support northern scholarship;
- initiate programs to increase public awareness of northern studies and research in Canada;
- establish mechanisms through which resources can be allocated to member universities and colleges for the purpose of increasing knowledge of the North and ensures an appropriate number of trained and skilled northern scientists, managers, and educators;
- enhance opportunities for northern people, particularly indigenous northerners, to become leaders and promoters of excellence in education and research matters important to the North;
- facilitate, through conferences, seminars, research and other methods, the understanding and resolution of Arctic issues; and
- co-operate with other public, private, and international organizations concerned with the advancement, application, and impact of northern scholarship.
ADMAP - Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Projecthttp://www.earthsciences.osu.edu/admap/
ADMAP has been providing a unique opportunity for integrating scientific research and investigations over Antarctica last several years. ADMAP has the potential to enable a broad range of scientific communities all over the world to have greatly aided geologic studies of Antarctica where almost 99% of the continent is covered by ice and snow. In particular, international attention to the Antarctic is paid considerable because of the central role of its tectonic and geologic researches in both Gondwana and Rodinia evolution, and the fact that it is the most poorly understood region of the planet. As of consequence, numerous near-surface magnetic surveys carried out by the multi-national scientific communities are very critical to unveil the evolutionary history of both paleo-continents. In addition, the state-of-art magnetic satellite missions have been carried out to augment the gaps where near-surface surveys were not done yet. Accordingly, ADMAP was launched in 1995 to compile and integrate into a digital database all exisiting near-surface and satellite mangetic anomaly data collected in Antarctica and surrounding oceans south of 60 degree. Since then, ADMAP Working Group has been updating the databases with additional surveys as well as investigating the areas of special interest.
AEPS - Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy
Multilateral, non-binding agreement among Arctic states aimed at Arctic environment protection. Discussions began in 1989, with the AEPS adopted in June 1991 by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the USSR, and the United States. The AEPS deals with monitoring, assessment, protection, emergency preparedness/response, and conservation of the Arctic zone. It has been called a major political accomplishment of the post-Cold War-era.
AFoPS - Asian Forum for Polar Sciencehttp://www.afops.org/
Recognizing the importance of international cooperation and aiming to serve the common interests in polar sciences, member countries work together to provide a foundation for cooperative research activities, to present Asian achievements to international polar communities, and to encourage Asian countries' involvement in polar research.
AGC - Alaska Geobotany Centerhttp://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/
The Alaska Geobotany Center (AGC) is dedicated to understanding northern ecosystems through the use of geographic information systems, remote sensing, field experiments, and cooperative team research projects. We share a commitment to excellence in field research and teaching with the goal of inspiring an appreciation of northern ecosystems and making our research and teaching relevant to societal issues and concerns, particularly issues relevant to the state of Alaska.
AGCS - Programme on Antarctica in the Global Climate System
AGCS is a major research programme of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Its objective is to investigate the nature of the atmospheric and oceanic linkages between the climate of the Antarctic and the rest of the Earth system, and the mechanisms involved therein. The programme makes use of existing deep and shallow ice cores, satellite data, the output of global and regional coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models, and in-situ meteorological and oceanic data to understand the means by which signals of tropical and mid-latitude climate variability reach the Antarctic, and high latitude climate signals exported northwards. It has four major, closely linked themes of research dealing with decadal time scale variability in the Antarctic climate system, global and regional climate signals in ice cores, natural and anthropogenic forcing on the Antarctic climate system and the export of Antarctic climate signals.
AGDC - Antarctic Glaciological Data Centerhttp://nsidc.org/agdc/
The Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) archives and distributes Antarctic glaciological and cryospheric system data collected by the U.S. Antarctic Program. The AGDC Data Catalog contains data sets collected by individual investigators and products assembled from many different PI data sets, published literature, and other sources. The catalog provides useful compilations of important geophysical parameters, such as accumulation rate or ice velocity.
AGU - America Geophysical Unionhttp://www.agu.org/
AGU's Vision is a worldwide scientific community that advances, through unselfish cooperation in research, an understanding of Earth and space that is used for the benefit of humanity. AGU's goals are to insure global leadership in the communication of scientific knowledge within and beyond the Earth and space science communities, to integrate Earth and space science disciplines, and to expand the effectiveness of the international network of Earth and space scientists working together to optimize scientific knowledge and its applications. They also support the growth of a diverse group of excellent Earth and space scientists to meet the needs of society and promote scientific literacy worldwide.
AHDR - Arctic Human Development Reporthttp://www.svs.is/AHDR/
The Arctic Human Development Report is the first comprehensive assessment of human well-being covering the entire Arctic region. Mandated under the Arctic Council's 2002 Ministerial Declaration as a "priority project" designed to provide a "comprehensive knowledge base" for the work of the Council's Sustainable Development Programme, the AHDR was a centerpiece of the Icelandic Chairmanship of the Arctic Council during 2002-2004.
AIA - Aleut International Associationhttp://www.aleut-international.org/
AIA was formed by the Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, U. S., one of the thirteen regional not-for-profit Alaska Native corporations created as a result of Alaska Native Settlement Claims Act in 1971, and the Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Aleut District of the Kamchatka Region of the Russian Federation (AIPNADKR). AIA is governed by a Board of Directors comprised of four Alaskan and four Russian Aleuts under the leadership of a president. The organization was formed to address environmental and cultural concerns of the extended Aleut family whose wellbeing has been connected to the rich resources of the Bering Sea for millennia.
AICC - Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee
Coordinates arctic research vessels.
AINA - Arctic Institute of North Americahttp://www.arctic.ucalgary.ca/
The institute's mandate is to advance the study of the North American and circumpolar Arctic through the natural and social sciences, the arts and humanities and to acquire, preserve and disseminate information on physical, environmental and social conditions in the North.
ALIAS - Arctic Logistics Information and Supporthttp://www.arcus.org/ALIAS/index.html
Provides links to map resources, including bathymetric maps of the Arctic Ocean and historical maps.
AMAP - Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programhttp://www.amap.no/
AMAP is an international organization established in 1991 to implement components of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS). Now a programme group of the Arctic Council, AMAP's current objective is "providing reliable and sufficient information on the status of, and threats to, the Arctic environment, and providing scientific advice on actions to be taken in order to support Arctic governments in their efforts to take remedial and preventive actions relating to contaminants".
AMAPOF - Association Amicale des Missions Australes et Polaires Francaises
The goals of the Association are to "promote knowledge of polar and subpolar regions, promote and maintain southern and Antarctic friendly relations, to maintain among its members a bond of solidarity"
AMD - Antarctic Master Directoryhttp://idn.ceos.org/portals/Home.do?Portal=amd&MetadataType=0
A directory of datasets pertaining to the Antarctic, including cryospheric, atmospheric, and hydrological data. Also includes datasets from Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projects.
ANDRILL - Antarctic geological Drillinghttp://www.geology.ohio-state.edu/TerryWilson/research_andrill.htm
The ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) Project is an international consortium of more than 200 scientists, students, and educators from Germany, Italy, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ANDRILL will use a combination of techniques that include geophysical surveys, stratigraphic drilling and core analysis, and numerical modeling to study the climate, ice sheet and tectonic evolution of Antarctica during the last 55 million years.
ANENA - Association Nationale pour l'Etude de la Neige et des Avalancheshttp://www.anena.org/ (French)
Promotes, conducts, and coordinates research concerning snow, avalanches, and avalanche formation in order to predict avalanches and minimize death and injury. Disseminates information about avalanches to the public. Research activities include: studies of snowdrift and avalanche dynamics; creation of physical and mathematical models to simulate avalanches; avalanche prediction; satellite remote sensing of snowfall in France; implementation of electronic and other apparatus as search aids to buried avalanche victims; and setting off avalanches using explosives and other means. Holds annual conference
ANET - Antarctic Network
Led by Ohio State University, A-NET is a GPS/Seismic network spanning West Antarctica. A-NET is unique in that its backbone network consists of both GPS and seismic instrumentation, allowing for a more complete understanding of the interactions between the ice sheets and the underlying bedrock. A-NET is using improved technologies to record measurements year-round and to transmit data from remote sites to archives in the USA. This project is a part of POLENET (The Polar Earth Observing Network), a global network dedicated to observing the polar regions in a changing world.
ANS - Abisko Naturvetenskapliga Station (Abisko Scientific Research Station)http://www.linnea.com/~ans/
The Abisko Scientific Research Station, ANS, is an institution belonging to The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The Station's mission is to provide Swedish and foreign visiting scientists with the opportunity of conducting scientific work based on the particular conditions of the subarctic environment surrounding the Station and also to conduct such research with its own personnel.
The Antarctic Connection(TM) is an internet based retailer and information source for All Things Antarctic(TM). Our mission is to be the best and widest source for premium Antarctic related products. We strive to be a responsible booking agent for travel to this pristine continent. And we aim to provide accurate and extensive news, weather and information from and about the frozen continent.
Antarctic Tasmania's mission is to promote Tasmania as a centre for Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and temperate marine activity and ensure that national and international communities recognise and use Tasmania as a gateway to the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. Our objectives are to:
- Increase the participation of local companies in the supply of goods and services to the Antarctic sector
- Increase the number and satisfaction of Antarctic sector organisations using Hobart as a base for their operations and resupply activities
- Promote Hobart's Antarctic community to Tasmanians, the international Antarctic community and potential visitors.
ANTPAS - Antarctic Permafrost and Soilshttp://erth.waikato.ac.nz/antpas/
The combined IPA working group on Antarctic Permafrost and SCAR expert group on Antarctic Soils, Permafrost and Periglacial Environments, in close working relationship with the IUSS cryosols group, have launched the ANTPAS project to address some of the current shortcomings and research needs. The overall aim is to develop an internationally coordinated, web-accessible, database and monitoring system on Antarctic permafrost and soils. Specific objectives are:
- A common, web-accessible repository for permafrost and soils data.
- The production of thematic maps on Antarctic permafrost and soils.
- A system of boreholes providing data on permafrost and soils properties, records of past environmental change, and recording permafrost responses to climate change.
- A well-designed monitoring system recording active layer and periglacial process responses to climate change along selected environmental gradients.
ANZ - Antarctica New Zealandhttp://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/
Antarctica New Zealand is the Crown Entity responsible for developing, managing and executing New Zealand Government activities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, in particular the Ross Dependency. Antarctica New Zealand manages Scott Base, New Zealand's Antarctic research station. It maintains New Zealand's operational presence in the Ross Dependency for the benefit of present and future generations of New Zealanders. Key activities include supporting scientific research, conserving the intrinsic values of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and raising public awareness (in part through arts, media and youth programmes) of the international significance of the continent.
AOMIP - Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Projecthttp://efdl.cims.nyu.edu/project_aomip/overview.html
The Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMIP) is an international effort to identify systematic errors in Arctic Ocean models under realistic forcing. The main research goals are to examine the ability of Arctic Ocean models to simulate variability on seasonal to interannual scales, and to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the behaviour of different Arctic Ocean models. AOMIP's major objective is to use a suite of sophisticated models to simulate the Arctic Ocean circulation for the periods 1948-2004 and 1901-2004. Model results will be contrasted and compared to understand model strengths and weaknesses. AOMIP will bring together the international modeling community for a comprehensive evaluation and validation of current Arctic Ocean models. The project will provide valuable information on improving Arctic Ocean models and will result in a better understanding of the processes that maintain the Arctic's observed variability.
AON - Arctic Observing Networkhttp://www.aoncadis.org/
AON is an NSF initiative for the International Polar Year (IPY) to improve observational capabilities in the Arctic and leave a long-term legacy for the benefit of science and society. AON data will contribute to scientific research leading to (1) increased knowledge and understanding of the regional and global causes and consequences of present-day environmental Arctic Change, (2) scenarios for and prediction of the course of future Arctic Change and its regional and global consequences, and (3) the development of adaptive responses to Arctic Change. AON is integral to the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH). AON currently consists of 35 projects funded by the NSF Office of Polar Programs. The AON projects fall into the following SEARCH Implementation Plan categories: Atmosphere; Ocean and Sea Ice; Hydrology/Cryosphere; Terrestrial Ecosystems; and Human Dimensions. CADIS will support all these projects, as well as the IASOA (International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere) program.
AOSB - Arctic Ocean Sciences Boardwww.aosb.org
The Arctic Ocean Sciences Board (AOSB) is a non-governmental body that includes members and participants from research and governmental institutions in Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The long-term mission of the AOSB is to facilitate Arctic Ocean research by the support of multinational and multidisciplinary natural science and engineering programs.
APEX - Arctic Palaeoclimate and its Extremes- Network Research programmehttp://www.apex.geo.su.se/
APEX is a network research programme aiming to understand Arctic climatic changes beyond instrumental records. Our particular emphasis is to focus on the magnitude/frequency of the climate variability and, in particular, the "extremes" versus the "normal" conditions of the climate system. It is an interdisciplinary programme that integrates marine and terrestrial science and utilises modelling and field observations. APEX involves scientists from 15 European countries, Canada and USA and is one of the coordinating programmes for palaeoclimate research during the International Polar Year. APEX is endorsed by the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC).
APPAA - Asociación Polar Pingüinera Antártica Argentinahttp://www.asociacionpolar.com/ (Spanish)
Promotes public understanding of Antarctica through lectures, publications and exhibitions.
ARCMIP - Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Projecthttp://curry.eas.gatech.edu/ARCMIP/
The Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison (ARCMIP) aims to improve the simulation of the Arctic regional climate in numerical models. The primary ARCMIP activities focus on coordinated simulations by different regional climate models and general circulation models. Output from these models are compared and evaluated using observations from satellites, in situ measurements and field experiments. The first ARCMIP intercomparison Project is using data obtained in 1997 and 1998 during the SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean). ARCMIP has been organized under the auspices of the WCRP GEWEX Cloud System Studies Working Group on Polar Clouds and the ACSYS Numerical Experimentation Group. Funding for coordination of ARCMIP activities is provided by the International Arctic Research Consortium, and the Global Implications of Arctic Climate Process and Feedbacks (GLIMPSE) Project (funded by the European Union).
The Arctic Portal provides a comprehensive gateway to the Arctic on the internet, increases co-operation between both public and private parties across the Arctic and grants exposure to Arctic related information. The Arctic Portal is an endorsed IPY-Project #388 lead by Iceland's Senior Arctic Official in consultation and co-operation with other members of the Arctic Council and its Working Groups, Permanent Participants, Northern Forum, UArctic, The Arctic Centre at the University of Lapland, The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of Roshydromet, The International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry and others. Initially, it was mainly focused on the needs of the Arctic Council and its working groups and it is already functioning as such, with integrated document library and an integrated project directory, advanced search, interactive mapping, homepages for AC projects, etc. The initiative has received wide support among parties that deal with Arctic and Nordic matters, professionals, institutions and politicians. For example, the Arctic Portal and the University of the Arctic have good collaboration and will work together in various projects in the future.
Arctic Report Cardhttp://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/
Issued annually, the Arctic Report Card is a timely source for clear, reliable and concise environmental information on the state of the Arctic, relative to historical time series records. Some of the essays are based upon updates to articles in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society State of the Climate in 2009. Material presented in the Report Card is prepared by an international team of scientists. The Arctic Report Card is collaboratively supported by the international Arctic Council. The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) provides collaborative support through the delivery and editing of the biological elements of the Report Card. The audience for the Arctic Report Card is wide, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public interested in Arctic environment and science. The web-based format facilitates future timely updates of the content.
ArcticStat is a permanent, public and independent statistical database dealing with the countries, regions and populations of the Circumpolar Arctic. ArcticStat was born out of the desire to facilitate comparative research on the socioeconomic conditions of the peoples of the Arctic by bringing together already existing data which are dispersed and often hard to find.
ARCUS - Arctic Research Consortium of the United Stateshttp://www.arcus.org/
The Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), based in Fairbanks, Alaska, was formed in 1988 as a nonprofit member consortium of educational and scientific institutions that have a substantial commitment to arctic research. ARCUS facilitates discussion of important arctic research initiatives, produces science reports with research community recommendations for arctic science priorities, and distributes information resources to the arctic research community. ARCUS activities are funded through member dues and contracts and grants with federal and private entities. ARCUS is a non-profit corporation consisting of institutions organized and operated for educational, professional, or scientific purposes. An institution is considered eligible for membership in ARCUS if it has made a definitive, substantial, and continuing commitment to a coherent research program or course of studies leading to degrees in one or more disciplines associated with Arctic research or related fields. The representatives of member institutions constitute the Council of ARCUS and elect the Board of Directors.
ARI - Aurora Research Institute
The Aurora Research Institute (ARI) operates three facilities in the Northwest Territories, Canada - in Inuvik, Yellowknife and the other in Fort Smith. These facilities provide support to researchers operating in those areas. Support services are available to anyone conducting research, regardless of the sponsoring agency. Aurora Research Institute's mandate is to improve the quality of life for NWT's residents by applying scientific, technological and indigenous knowledge to solve northern problems and advance social and economic goals. As such, Aurora Research Institute is responsible for:
- Licensing and coordinating research in accordance with the NWT Scientists Act;
- promoting communication between researchers and the people of the communities in which they work;
- promoting public awareness of the importance of science, technology and indigenous knowledge;
- fostering a scientific community within the NWT which recognizes and uses the traditional knowledge of northern aboriginal peoples;
- making scientific and traditional knowledge available to people of the NWT; and
- supporting or conducting research which contributes to the social, cultural and economic prosperity of the people of the NWT.
Arktisk Institut (Arctic Institute)http://www.arktiskinstitut.dk/ (Danish)
Independent private institution founded by a group of Arctic explorers to promote study and disseminate information concerning the Arctic, especially Greenland. Expedition archives were deposited here, an Arctic library established, and a large photographic collection comprising ca. 60,000 photographs of Greenland dating back to ca. 1850. Since 1993, it has been co-located with the Danish Polar Centre (Danish Ministry of Research).
ASAC - Antarctic Science Advisory Committee
The Antarctic Science Advisory Committee (ASAC), through the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), assists the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, in the development of the science strategy, evaluation of science quality, advice on the infrastructure and capability required to support the science program, and alignment with national and international science programs. The Antarctic Science Advisory Committee (ASAC), in collaboration with the wider Antarctic scientific committee, sets the scientific directions of Australia's Antarctic Science Program Science Strategy..
ASC - Alaska Science Center
The mission of the Alaska Science Center is to provide objective and timely data, information, and research findings about the earth and its flora and fauna to federal, state, and local resource managers and the public to support sound decisions regarding natural resources, natural hazards, and ecosystems in Alaska and circumpolar regions.
ASOC - Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalitionwww.asoc.org
Association of organizations concerned with environmental issues in these regions. Members include Greenpeace and the Antarctica Project in addition to other environmental groups. Major campaigns include the Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, which works to protect the base of the Antarctic food web, regulating Antarctic tourism, protecting the Ross Sea, strengthening the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary, managing Southern Ocean Fisheries sustainably, and implementing the Environment Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. ASOC has recognized NGO status at the United Nations.
ASSW - Arctic Science Summit Weekhttp://www.imr.no/assw2009/
The purpose of the summit was to provide opportunities for international coordination, collaboration and cooperation in all areas of Arctic science and to combine science and management meetings. The ASSW also offered insight into Arctic research undertaken by the host country. Side meetings organized by other groups with interests in Arctic science and policy took place at the same time.
ATCM - Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetingshttp://www.ats.aq/e/ats_meetings_atcm.htm
From 1961 to 1994 the ATCM generally met once every two years, but since 1994 the meetings have occurred annually. Measures, Decisions and Resolutions, which are adopted at the ATCM by consensus, give effect to the principles of the Antarctic Treaty and the Environment Protocol and provide regulations and guidelines for the management of the Antarctic Treaty area and the work of the ATCM. Decisions, which address internal organizational matters of the ATCM, and Resolutions, which are hortatory texts, are not legally binding on Contracting Parties. In contrast, Measures are legally binding on the Consultative Parties once they have been approved by all Consultative Parties. Only the Consultative Parties take part in decision-making. Other participants in the meeting, however, may contribute to the discussions.
ATS - Antarctic Treaty Secretariathttp://www.ats.aq/index_e.htm
The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is an organization created by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) for the management of several ATCM tasks such as the support of the annual meeting of signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty, and the publication of the ATCM annual report.
ATS - Antarctic Treaty Systemhttp://www.ats.aq/e/ats.htm
The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington in 1959 to establish Antarctica as a region of peace and cooperation, and to deal with issues relating to claims of sovereignty. Its primary purpose is to ensure "in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord." The Treaty is at the core of a number of related agreements which, together with the measures taken under the Antarctic Treaty and related agreements are often called the Antarctic Treaty system. The other agreements making up the system are:
- the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid, 1991)
- the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS, London, 1972)
- the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR, Canberra, 1980)
Although CCAS and CCAMLR are independent agreements, they contain provisions committing their Parties to essential parts of the Antarctic Treaty such as Article IV which deals with the legal status of territorial claims. The Environment Protocol is open to accession by Antarctic Treaty Parties only.
AWI - Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research**website available in
The Alfred Wegener Institute carries out research in the Arctic and Antarctic as well as in the high and mid latitude oceans. The institute coordinates German polar research and makes available to national and international science important infrastructure, e.g. the research ice breaker "Polarstern" and research stations in the Arctic and Antarctic.